## Learning Objectives

- Find the lengths of chords in a circle.
- Discover properties of chords and arcs.

## Review Queue

- Draw a chord in a circle.
- Draw a diameter in the circle from #1. Is a diameter a chord?
- is an equilateral triangle in . Find and .
- and are equilateral triangles in . List a pair of congruent arcs and chords.

**Know What?** To the right is the Gran Teatro Falla, in Cadiz, Andalucía, Spain. Notice the five windows, . and . Each window is topped with a arc. The gold chord in each circle connects the rectangular portion of the window to the circle. Which chords are congruent?

Recall from the first section, a chord is a line segment whose endpoints are on a circle. A diameter is the longest chord in a circle.

## Congruent Chords & Congruent Arcs

From #4 in the Review Queue above, we noticed that and .

**Theorem 9-3:** In the same circle or congruent circles, minor arcs are congruent if and only if their corresponding chords are congruent.

In both of these pictures, and .

In the second circle, by SAS.

**Example 1:** Use to answer the following.

a) If , find .

b) If , find .

**Solution:**

a) , which means the arcs are equal too. .

b) because .

**Investigation 9-2: Perpendicular Bisector of a Chord**

Tools Needed: paper, pencil, compass, ruler

1. Draw a circle. Label the center .

2. Draw a chord. Label it .

3. Find the midpoint of using a ruler. Label it .

4. Connect and to form a diameter. How does relate to ?

**Theorem 9-4:** The perpendicular bisector of a chord is also a diameter.

If and then is a diameter.

If , then and .

**Theorem 9-5:** If a diameter is perpendicular to a chord, then the diameter bisects the chord and its corresponding arc.

**Example 2:** Find the value of and .

**Solution:** The diameter perpendicular to the chord. From Theorem 9-5, and .

**Example 3:** Is the converse of Theorem 9-4 true?

**Solution:** The converse of Theorem 9-4 would be: *A diameter is also the perpendicular bisector of a chord.* This is not true, a diameter cannot always be a perpendicular bisector to every chord. See the picture.

**Example 4:** ** Algebra Connection** Find the value of and .

**Solution:** The diameter is perpendicular to the chord, which means it bisects the chord and the arc. Set up an equation for and .

## Equidistant Congruent Chords

**Investigation 9-3: Properties of Congruent Chords**

Tools Needed: pencil, paper, compass, ruler

- Draw a circle with a radius of 2 inches and two chords that are both 3 inches. Label like the picture to the right.
*This diagram is drawn*to scale. - From the center, draw the perpendicular segment to and . You can use Investigation 3-2
- Erase the arc marks and lines beyond the points of intersection, leaving and . Find the measure of these segments. What do you notice?

**Theorem 9-6:** In the same circle or congruent circles, two chords are congruent if and only if they are equidistant from the center.

The shortest distance from any point to a line is the perpendicular line between them.

If and , then and are equidistant to the center and .

**Example 5:** ** Algebra Connection** Find the value of .

**Solution:** Because the distance from the center to the chords is congruent and perpendicular to the chords, the chords are equal.

**Example 6:** and in . Find the radius.

**Solution:** First find the radius. is a radius, so we can use the right triangle , so is the hypotenuse. From Theorem 9-5, .

**Example 7:** Find from Example 6.

**Solution:** First, find the corresponding central angle, . We can find using the tangent ratio. Then, multiply by 2 for and .

**Know What? Revisited** In the picture, the chords from and are congruent and the chords from and are also congruent. We know this from Theorem 9-3.

## Review Questions

- Questions 1-3 use the theorems from this section and similar to Example 3.
- Questions 4-10 use the definitions and theorems from this section.
- Questions 11-16 are similar to Example 1 and 2.
- Questions 17-25 are similar to Examples 2, 4, 5, and 6.
- Questions 26 and 27 are similar to Example 7.
- Questions 28-30 use the theorems from this section.

- Two chords in a circle are perpendicular and congruent. Does one of them have to be a diameter? Why or why not?
- Write the converse of Theorem 9-5. Is it true? If not, draw a counterexample.
- Write the original and converse statements from Theorem 9-3 and Theorem 9-6.

Fill in the blanks.

- List all the congruent radii in .

Find the value of the indicated arc in .

** Algebra Connection** Find the value of and/or .

- Find in Question 20. Round your answer to the nearest tenth of a degree.
- Find in Question 25. Round your answer to the nearest tenth of a degree.

In problems 28-30, what can you conclude about the picture? State a theorem that justifies your answer. You may assume that is the center of the circle.

## Review Queue Answers

1 & 2. Answers will vary

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