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9.11: Types of Echinoderms

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12
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How can you find feathers in the ocean?

Birds aren't the only creatures that have feathers. One type of echinoderm, the feather star, has feathery arms. These animals don't fly or even move much at all. They usually cling to rocks, using a root-like structure.

Types of Echinoderms

The echinoderms can be divided into two major groups:

  1. Eleutherozoa are the echinoderms that can move. This group includes the starfish and most other echinoderms.
  2. Pelmatozoa are the immobile echinoderms. This group includes crinoids, such as the feather stars.

Listed below are the four main classes of echinoderms present in the Eleutherozoa Group (Table below).

Echinoderm Class Representative Organisms
Asteroidea Starfish and sea daisies
Ophiuroidea Brittle stars (Figure below)
Echinoidea Sea urchins and sand dollars
Holothuroidea Sea cucumbers

The giant red brittle star, an ophiuroid echinoderm.


Echinoderms are spread all over the world at almost all depths, latitudes, and environments in the ocean. Most feather stars live in shallow water. In the deep ocean, sea cucumbers are common, sometimes making up 90% of the organisms. Most echinoderms, however, are found in reefs.

Do Echinoderms Move?

While almost all echinoderms live on the sea floor, some sea-lilies can swim at great speeds for brief periods of time, and a few sea cucumbers are fully floating. Some echinoderms find other ways of moving. For example, crinoids attach themselves to floating logs, and some sea cucumbers move by attaching to the sides of fish.


  • crinoid: Echinoderm with a somewhat cup-shaped body and feathery arms.
  • feather star: Crinoid that is missing a stalk during the later part of its life cycle.


  • Echinoderms include the star fish, sea urchins, sand dollars, and feather stars.
  • Echinoderms are found in many different ocean environments, but most are found in reefs.


Use the resources below to answer the questions that follow.

  1. What is the difference between sea lilies and feather stars?
  2. Some crinoids can be seen at night in shallow tropical waters, but where have they been found to be most abundant?
  1. What kind of feeding behavior are these brittle stars displaying?
  2. How is this feeding behavior related to the ecosystem in which they live?
  1. Where is a sand dollar's mouth located?
  2. How do the sand dollars in this video feed? What are they eating?
  1. Where do sea cucumbers live?
  2. How do sea cucumbers eat?


  1. Name four examples of echinoderms.
  2. Where are most echinoderms found?

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    Echinoderm with a somewhat cup-shaped body and feathery arms.

    feather star

    Crinoid that is missing a stalk during the later part of its life cycle.

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    Nov 29, 2012
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