<meta http-equiv="refresh" content="1; url=/nojavascript/"> Mendel's Pea Plants | CK-12 Foundation
Dismiss
Skip Navigation
You are reading an older version of this FlexBook® textbook: CK-12 Life Science Concepts For Middle School Go to the latest version.

3.8: Mendel's Pea Plants

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12
%
Progress
Practice Mendel's Pea Plants
Practice
Progress
%
Practice Now

Why do you look like your family?

For a long time people understood that traits are passed down through families. The rules of how this worked were unclear, however. The work of Gregor Mendel was crucial in explaining how traits are passed down to each generation.

Mendel's Experiments

What does the word "inherit" mean? You may have inherited something of value from a grandparent or another family member. To inherit is to receive something from someone who came before you. You can inherit objects, but you can also inherit traits. For example, you can inherit a parent's eye color, hair color, or even the shape of your nose and ears!

Genetics is the study of inheritance. The field of genetics seeks to explain how traits are passed on from one generation to the next.

In the late 1850s, an Austrian monk named Gregor Mendel ( Figure below ) performed the first genetics experiments.

Gregor Mendel

Gregor Mendel, the "father" of genetics.

To study genetics, Mendel chose to work with pea plants because they have easily identifiable traits ( Figure below ). For example, pea plants are either tall or short, which is an easy trait to observe. Furthermore, pea plants grow quickly, so he could complete many experiments in a short period of time.

The Laws of Heredity

Characteristics of pea plants.

Mendel also used pea plants because they can either self-pollinate or be cross-pollinated . Self-pollination means that only one flower is involved; the flower's own pollen lands on the female sex organs. Cross pollination is done by hand by moving pollen from one flower to the stigma of another. As a result, one plant's sex cells combine with another plant's sex cells. This is called a "cross." These crosses produce offspring (or "children"), just like when male and female animals mate. Since Mendel could move pollen between plants, he could carefully control and then observe the results of crosses between two different types of plants.

He studied the inheritance patterns for many different traits in peas, including round seeds versus wrinkled seeds, white flowers versus purple flowers, and tall plants versus short plants. Because of his work, Mendel is considered the "Father of Genetics."

Mendel's First Experiment

In one of Mendel's early experiments, he crossed a short plant and a tall plant. What do you predict the offspring of these plants were? Medium-sized plants? Most people during Mendel's time would have said medium-sized. But an unexpected result occurred.

Mendel observed that the offspring of this cross (called the F1 generation ) were all tall plants!

Next, Mendel let the F1 generation self-pollinate. That means the tall plant offspring were crossed with each other. He found that 75% of their offspring (the F2 generation ) were tall, while 25% were short. Shortness skipped a generation. But why? In all, Mendel studied seven characteristics, with almost 20,000 F2 plants analyzed. All of his results were similar to the first experiment—about three out of every four plants had one trait, while just one out of every four plants had the other.

For example, he crossed purple flowered-plants and white flowered-plants. Do you think the colors blended? No, they did not. Just like the previous experiment, all offspring in this cross (the F1 generation) were one color: purple. In the F2 generation, 75% of plants had purple flowers and 25% had white flowers ( Figure below ). There was no blending of traits in any of Mendel's experiments.

The results of Mendel's experiment with purple flowered and white flowered-plants numerically matched the results of his experiments with other pea plant traits.

Vocabulary

  • cross-pollinate : Moving pollen from one flower to the stigma of another so that one plant's sex cells combine with another plant's sex cells.
  • F1 generation : Offspring of a cross.
  • F2 generation : Offspring from the self-pollination of the F1 generation.
  • genetics : Study of inheritance.
  • inherit : To receive something from someone who came before you.
  • offspring : Result of a reproductive process; children.
  • self-pollinate : Fertilization that occurs when a flower's own pollen lands on and pollinates the female sex organs.

Summary

  • Gregor Mendel was the father of the field of genetics, which seeks to explain how traits are passed on from one generation to the next.
  • To study genetics, Mendel chose to work with pea plants because they have easily identifiable traits.

Practice

Use the resource below to answer the questions that follow.

  1. What is a "simple" trait?
  2. What is a heterozygote? How is this different than a homozygote?
  3. You breed a plant with yellow wrinkled peas with a plant with yellow smooth peas. Both individuals are homozygous for both traits. What will the peas of the next generation look like?
  4. You breed plants with the same traits as in question 3, but this time the smooth trait is heterozygous in the second individual. What will the peas of the next generation look like?
  5. Since not all individuals in a generation successfully reproduce, how do you think the size of a population affects its ability to maintain heterozygotes in the population? What would happen to a population that lost all its heterozygotes? Think carefully and explain your answer fully.

Review

  1. Why did Mendel choose to study pea plants?
  2. How did Mendel's experiments disprove the idea that we are simply a "blend" of our parents' traits?

Vocabulary

cross-pollinate

cross-pollinate

Moving pollen from one flower to the stigma of another so that one plant's sex cells combine with another plant's sex cells.
F1 generation

F1 generation

Offspring of a cross.
F2 generation

F2 generation

Offspring from the self-pollination of the F1 generation.
genetics

genetics

Study of inheritance.
inherit

inherit

To receive something from someone who came before you.
offspring

offspring

Result of a reproductive process; children.
self-pollinate

self-pollinate

Fertilization that occurs when a flower's own pollen lands on and pollinates the female sex organs.

Image Attributions

Description

Difficulty Level:

At Grade

Date Created:

Nov 29, 2012

Last Modified:

Dec 15, 2014
Files can only be attached to the latest version of Modality

Reviews

Please wait...
Please wait...
Image Detail
Sizes: Medium | Original
 
SCI.LSC.311.L.1
", "blacklisted": 0, "width": "420", "url": "http://s2.thingpic.com/images/oo/uyJT56Vxot4mYLUrkQH.jpeg?hash=f4a496d52f2ce5f1f57082f002efe2ef", "thumbnail": null, "height": "315", "caption": null, "iframe": "
", "provider": {"id": 55, "name": "ThingLink"}, "type": "customembed", "id": 115466, "description": null}, "uri": "http://s2.thingpic.com/images/oo/uyJT56Vxot4mYLUrkQH.jpeg", "id": 6519631, "permaUri": "/interactive/uyJT56Vxot4mYLUrkQH.jpeg", "streamable": 0, "realm": null, "isAbused": false, "name": "Making Connections for Mendel's Pea Plants", "filesize": null, "revisions": [{"hash": null, "created": "2012-09-21T01:05:54-07:00", "resourceID": 6519631, "isPublic": true, "publishTime": "2014-04-29T13:22:26-07:00", "filesize": null, "id": 5972640, "revision": "1"}], "type": "interactive", "thumbnail": null, "revision": "1", "handle": "uyJT56Vxot4mYLUrkQH.jpeg", "description": "Illustrated mind map for Mendel's Pea Plants and related concepts.", "authors": "Andrea Trosien", "ownerID": 3, "isExternal": 1, "resourceRevisionID": 5972640, "license": "CC BY NC SA", "created": "2012-09-21T01:05:54-07:00", "satelliteUrl": null, "publishTime": "2014-04-29T13:22:26-07:00", "originalName": "http://s2.thingpic.com/images/oo/uyJT56Vxot4mYLUrkQH.jpeg", "isAttachment": 1}, {"uri": "/flx/show/activity/MendelsPeaPlantsIntroAct.docx", "boxDocuments": {"resourceID": 6519306, "updated": null, "id": 21926, "documentID": "9e859aa79ea54967a322193df5bc995e", "created": "2014-07-21T17:22:13-07:00"}, "id": 6519306, "permaUri": "/activity/MendelsPeaPlantsIntroAct.docx", "streamable": 0, "realm": null, "isAbused": false, "name": "Mendel's Pea Plants Introduction Activity", "filesize": 156649, "revisions": [{"hash": null, "created": "2012-09-21T00:57:50-07:00", "resourceID": 6519306, "isPublic": true, "publishTime": "2013-11-14T09:39:24-08:00", "filesize": 156649, "id": 5972315, "revision": "1"}], "type": "activity", "revision": "1", "handle": "MendelsPeaPlantsIntroAct.docx", "description": "Genetic Wheel: where students evaluate their phenotypic traits", "authors": "Ava Chiao", "ownerID": 3, "isExternal": 0, "resourceRevisionID": 5972315, "license": "CC BY NC SA", "created": "2012-09-21T00:57:50-07:00", "satelliteUrl": "https://dr282zn36sxxg.cloudfront.net/datastreams/f-d%3Aff450ebc9cfbc78f794f61e99f4b5b50a2b5b2cfeb32c774d76f5c1d%2BACTIVITY%2BACTIVITY.1", "publishTime": "2013-11-14T09:39:24-08:00", "originalName": "MendelsPeaPlantsIntroAct.docx", "isAttachment": 1}, {"uri": "/flx/show/handout/MendelsPeaPlantsSciInq.xlsx", "id": 6519307, "permaUri": "/handout/MendelsPeaPlantsSciInq.xlsx", "streamable": 0, "realm": null, "isAbused": false, "filesize": 752617, "revisions": [{"hash": null, "created": "2012-09-21T00:57:53-07:00", "resourceID": 6519307, "isPublic": true, "publishTime": "2012-09-28T22:33:19-07:00", "filesize": 752617, "id": 5972316, "revision": "1"}], "type": "handout", "revision": "1", "handle": "MendelsPeaPlantsSciInq.xlsx", "description": "Handout for scientific inquiry activity in the Mendel's Pea Plants lesson plan.", "isExternal": 0, "authors": "Ava Chiao", "ownerID": 3, "name": "Mendel's Pea Plants Scientific Inquiry", "resourceRevisionID": 5972316, "license": "CC BY NC SA", "created": "2012-09-21T00:57:53-07:00", "satelliteUrl": "https://dr282zn36sxxg.cloudfront.net/datastreams/f-d%3A3e0d5e5fdc4c6d03b578c6b08d893bc4b84a854171fed2ffe25d5e53%2BHANDOUT%2BHANDOUT.1", "publishTime": "2012-09-28T22:33:19-07:00", "originalName": "MendelsPeaPlantsSciInq.xlsx", "isAttachment": 1}, {"uri": "/flx/show/activity/MendelsPeaPlantsDiffInstr.docx", "boxDocuments": {"resourceID": 6519308, "updated": null, "id": 21946, "documentID": "832004c581bd4af4855bb5b26afac5df", "created": "2014-07-21T17:22:35-07:00"}, "id": 6519308, "permaUri": "/activity/MendelsPeaPlantsDiffInstr.docx", "streamable": 0, "realm": null, "isAbused": false, "name": "Mendel's Pea Plants Differentiated Instruction", "filesize": 346820, "revisions": [{"hash": null, "created": "2012-09-21T00:57:57-07:00", "resourceID": 6519308, "isPublic": true, "publishTime": "2013-11-14T09:39:19-08:00", "filesize": 346820, "id": 5972317, "revision": "1"}], "type": "activity", "revision": "1", "handle": "MendelsPeaPlantsDiffInstr.docx", "description": "Students have a match up activity of the word to the name parts of a plant", "authors": "Ava Chiao", "ownerID": 3, "isExternal": 0, "resourceRevisionID": 5972317, "license": "CC BY NC SA", "created": "2012-09-21T00:57:57-07:00", "satelliteUrl": "https://dr282zn36sxxg.cloudfront.net/datastreams/f-d%3Aba576b467b2f40548a3acee34c04b526fe4b1d3f8e6a02f53d9f8d7c%2BACTIVITY%2BACTIVITY.1", "publishTime": "2013-11-14T09:39:19-08:00", "originalName": "MendelsPeaPlantsDiffInstr.docx", "isAttachment": 1}, {"uri": "http://www.hippocampus.org/Biology", "id": 3157658, "permaUri": "/web/http%3A//www.hippocampus.org/Biology", "streamable": 0, "realm": null, "isAbused": false, "filesize": null, "revisions": [{"hash": null, "created": "2012-08-27T20:19:18-07:00", "resourceID": 3157658, "isPublic": true, "publishTime": "2012-08-27T20:19:18-07:00", "filesize": null, "id": 2620088, "revision": "1"}], "type": "web", "revision": "1", "handle": "http://www.hippocampus.org/Biology", "description": "http://www.hippocampus.org/Biology", "isExternal": 1, "authors": null, "ownerID": 3, "name": "http://www.hippocampus.org/Biology", "resourceRevisionID": 2620088, "license": null, "created": "2012-08-27T20:19:18-07:00", "satelliteUrl": null, "publishTime": "2012-08-27T20:19:18-07:00", "originalName": "http://www.hippocampus.org/Biology", "isAttachment": 1}, {"uri": "/flx/show/cthink/Discussion_MendelPeaPlants.docx", "boxDocuments": {"resourceID": 6520947, "updated": null, "id": 25311, "documentID": "d84ad1eac9d6486595dd1ca975e066d0", "created": "2014-07-21T19:08:17-07:00"}, "id": 6520947, "permaUri": "/cthink/Discussion_MendelPeaPlants.docx", "streamable": 0, "realm": null, "isAbused": false, "name": "Mendel's Pea Plants Discussion Questions", "filesize": 14669, "revisions": [{"hash": null, "created": "2012-09-21T01:39:47-07:00", "resourceID": 6520947, "isPublic": true, "publishTime": "2012-09-28T23:47:39-07:00", "filesize": 14669, "id": 5973958, "revision": "1"}], "type": "cthink", "revision": "1", "handle": "Discussion_MendelPeaPlants.docx", "description": "A list of student-submitted discussion questions for Mendel's Pea Plants.", "authors": "CK-12 2012 summer interns", "ownerID": 3, "isExternal": 0, "resourceRevisionID": 5973958, "license": "CC BY NC SA", "created": "2012-09-21T01:39:47-07:00", "satelliteUrl": "https://dr282zn36sxxg.cloudfront.net/datastreams/f-d%3A575bc0b3e37c67ffca930022e07d0dd7bb9fbd57ce2123901eae226e%2BCTHINK%2BCTHINK.1", "publishTime": "2012-09-28T23:47:39-07:00", "originalName": "Discussion_MendelPeaPlants.docx", "isAttachment": 1}, {"uri": "/flx/show/studyguide/gregor_mendel.pdf", "boxDocuments": {"resourceID": 43928, "updated": null, "id": 10801, "documentID": "5093ee32ca8547d5af67145c98500356", "created": "2014-07-18T11:06:10-07:00"}, "id": 43928, "permaUri": "/studyguide/gregor_mendel.pdf", "streamable": 0, "realm": null, "isAbused": false, "name": "Gregor Mendel Study Guide", "filesize": 488765, "revisions": [{"hash": "40a10610a5315bbe2ff05b20d658cde5", "created": "2012-02-28T18:39:01-08:00", "resourceID": 43928, "isPublic": true, "publishTime": "2012-09-28T23:33:52-07:00", "filesize": 488765, "id": 46671, "revision": "1"}], "type": "studyguide", "revision": "1", "handle": "gregor_mendel.pdf", "description": "This study guide gives an overview of Mendel's pea plant experiments, including experimental steps, results, and conclusions.", "authors": "Maxine Tsang, Jin Yu", "ownerID": 3, "isExternal": 0, "resourceRevisionID": 46671, "license": "CC BY NC SA", "created": "2012-02-28T18:39:01-08:00", "satelliteUrl": "https://dr282zn36sxxg.cloudfront.net/datastreams/f-d%3A8f7a83ea62ff00f9ad55a1c032f293f939de3bf19eb9de3f7b2d4552%2BSTUDYGUIDE%2BSTUDYGUIDE.1", "publishTime": "2012-09-28T23:33:52-07:00", "originalName": "gregor_mendel.pdf", "isAttachment": 1}, {"uri": "/flx/show/lessonplan/MendelsPeaPlantsLessonPlan.docx", "boxDocuments": {"resourceID": 6519305, "updated": null, "id": 21906, "documentID": "673df20288fc45d78bf5645c40ecf4c7", "created": "2014-07-21T17:21:51-07:00"}, "id": 6519305, "permaUri": "/lessonplan/MendelsPeaPlantsLessonPlan.docx", "streamable": 0, "realm": null, "isAbused": false, "name": "Mendel's Pea Plants Lesson Plan", "filesize": 37062, "revisions": [{"hash": null, "created": "2012-09-21T00:57:47-07:00", "resourceID": 6519305, "isPublic": true, "publishTime": "2013-11-14T09:39:27-08:00", "filesize": 37062, "id": 5972314, "revision": "1"}], "type": "lessonplan", "revision": "1", "handle": "MendelsPeaPlantsLessonPlan.docx", "description": "Mendel's Pea Plants lesson plan which contains content & language objective, exit criteria, introduction, scientific inquiry, differentiated instruction, enrichment, review questions, points to consider, homework and additional resources.", "authors": "Ava Chiao", "ownerID": 3, "isExternal": 0, "resourceRevisionID": 5972314, "license": "CC BY NC SA", "created": "2012-09-21T00:57:47-07:00", "satelliteUrl": "https://dr282zn36sxxg.cloudfront.net/datastreams/f-d%3A865ad85bfb732b3b68660e17cff0596f3df113da2116b9e037a1ff94%2BLESSONPLAN%2BLESSONPLAN.1", "publishTime": "2013-11-14T09:39:27-08:00", "originalName": "MendelsPeaPlantsLessonPlan.docx", "isAttachment": 1}, {"uri": "/flx/show/activity/MendelsPeaPlantsEnrAct.doc", "boxDocuments": {"resourceID": 6519313, "updated": null, "id": 21966, "documentID": "e4f0f3d628654d3e99d172dc0abc8eed", "created": "2014-07-21T17:22:57-07:00"}, "id": 6519313, "permaUri": "/activity/MendelsPeaPlantsEnrAct.doc", "streamable": 0, "realm": null, "isAbused": false, "name": "Mendel's Pea Plants Enrichment Activity", "filesize": 67072, "revisions": [{"hash": null, "created": "2012-09-21T00:58:01-07:00", "resourceID": 6519313, "isPublic": true, "publishTime": "2013-11-14T09:39:22-08:00", "filesize": 67072, "id": 5972322, "revision": "1"}], "type": "activity", "revision": "1", "handle": "MendelsPeaPlantsEnrAct.doc", "description": "Worksheet practice on dominant, recessive and punnett squares.", "authors": "Ava Chiao", "ownerID": 3, "isExternal": 0, "resourceRevisionID": 5972322, "license": "CC BY NC SA", "created": "2012-09-21T00:58:01-07:00", "satelliteUrl": "https://dr282zn36sxxg.cloudfront.net/datastreams/f-d%3A2a39ab6f8ec8e152434a2f7dd8f2f9a20af464bed40faa295c60cdb3%2BACTIVITY%2BACTIVITY.1", "publishTime": "2013-11-14T09:39:22-08:00", "originalName": "MendelsPeaPlantsEnrAct.doc", "isAttachment": 1}, {"uri": "/flx/show/reading/MendelsPeaPlantsPrePostRead.docx", "boxDocuments": {"resourceID": 6521755, "updated": null, "id": 29032, "documentID": "28d4ed4c34f54fc5b2a955928666b3be", "created": "2014-07-21T21:21:29-07:00"}, "id": 6521755, "permaUri": "/reading/MendelsPeaPlantsPrePostRead.docx", "streamable": 0, "realm": null, "isAbused": false, "name": "Mendel's Pea Plants Pre Post Read", "filesize": 24213, "revisions": [{"hash": null, "created": "2012-09-21T02:06:38-07:00", "resourceID": 6521755, "isPublic": true, "publishTime": "2013-11-14T09:31:46-08:00", "filesize": 24213, "id": 5974766, "revision": "1"}], "type": "reading", "revision": "1", "handle": "MendelsPeaPlantsPrePostRead.docx", "description": "To activate prior knowledge, to generate questions about a given topic, and to organize knowledge using a KWL Chart.", "authors": "Rebecca M. Fulop", "ownerID": 3, "isExternal": 0, "resourceRevisionID": 5974766, "license": "CC BY NC SA", "created": "2012-09-21T02:06:38-07:00", "satelliteUrl": "https://dr282zn36sxxg.cloudfront.net/datastreams/f-d%3A9a31a876e452aae0dcbcceb5afa77cf5a7dd74e1ca68e197cb1bd331%2BREADING%2BREADING.1", "publishTime": "2013-11-14T09:31:46-08:00", "originalName": "MendelsPeaPlantsPrePostRead.docx", "isAttachment": 1}], "creator": "CK-12", "labels": [], "file": "9034", "id": 2833630, "statistics": {"downloads": 330}, "isFavorite": false, "title": "Mendel's Pea Plants", "creatorAuthID": 3, "offset": 38, "children": [], "parents": [[2833660, 1], [2850405, 1], [2853520, 1], [2853538, 1], [2853552, 1], [2853693, 1], [2854405, 1], [2855538, 1], [2857371, 1], [2859391, 1], [2861540, 1], [2863807, 1], [2865559, 1], [2869343, 1], [2878223, 1], [2878248, 1], [2878910, 1], [2881371, 1], [2882831, 1], [2889078, 1], [2889874, 1], [2890010, 1], [2905922, 1], [2905934, 1], [2905946, 1], [2905966, 1], [2905973, 1], [2905977, 1], [2906324, 1], [2906325, 1], [2906326, 1], [2906327, 1], [2906329, 1], [2906384, 1], [2906390, 1], [2906397, 1], [2906399, 1], [2906419, 1], [2906482, 1], [2899273, 2], [2903196, 30], [2903397, 30], [2906308, 30], [2906312, 30], [2906314, 32]], "isLatest": true, "revision": "39", "artifactRevisionID": 2833630, "handle": "Mendels-Pea-Plants", "creatorID": 3, "authors": [{"roleID": 3, "sequence": 1, "role": "author", "name": "Douglas Wilkin, Ph.D.", "artifactID": 8387}, {"roleID": 3, "sequence": 2, "role": "author", "name": "Jean Brainard, Ph.D.", "artifactID": 8387}], "epub": "/flx/show/epub/Mendels-Pea-Plants_l_v39_pml.epub", "artifactID": 8387, "mobi": "/flx/show/mobi/Mendels-Pea-Plants_l_v39_dpu.mobi", "resourceCounts": {"epubk": 1, "web": 5, "cthink": 1, "allVideos": 1, "lessonplan": 1, "studyguide": 1, "image": 4, "cover page": 1, "handout": 1, "mobi": 1, "quiz": 1, "allAttachments": 15, "epub": 1, "activity": 3, "pdf": 1, "cover video": 1, "reading": 1, "contents": 1, "interactive": 2}, "language": "English", "created": "2014-11-06T13:33:12-08:00", "summary": "An overview of Mendel's pea plant experiments.", "encodedID": "SCI.BIO.311.L.1", "published": "2014-11-11T11:30:50-08:00", "pdf": ["/flx/show/pdf/Mendels-Pea-Plants_l_v39_k7i_s1.pdf"], "artifactType": "lesson"}], "realm": null, "title": "Mendel's Pea Plants", "standardGrid": {}, "creatorAuthID": 3, "exerciseCount": 0, "feedbacks": {"rating": {"count": 0, "average": 0, "1": 0, "3": 0, "2": 0, "5": 0, "4": 0}, "voting": {"dislike": 0, "like": 12}}, "gradeGrid": [], "subjectGrid": [], "internalTagGrid": [], "tagGrid": [], "messageToUsers": null, "type": {"modality": true, "extensionType": "L", "description": "The lesson artifact", "name": "lesson", "id": 3}, "searchGrid": [], "artifactRevisionID": 2833630, "handle": "Mendels-Pea-Plants", "vocabulary": [{"languageCode": "en", "languageName": "English"}, {"languageCode": "es", "languageName": "Spanish"}], "isModality": 1, "revisionInLibrary": null, "foundationGrid": [], "stateGrid": [], "creatorLogin": "ck12editor", "creatorID": 3, "authors": [{"roleID": 3, "sequence": 1, "role": "author", "name": "Douglas Wilkin, Ph.D.", "artifactID": 8387}, {"roleID": 3, "sequence": 2, "role": "author", "name": "Jean Brainard, Ph.D.", "artifactID": 8387}], "artifactID": 8387, "latestRevision": "39", "license": "CC BY NC", "created": "2012-02-24T05:14:46-08:00", "coverImage": "/flx/show/cover%20page/bdeb36be269398f09cea646c95fcd37c-201411061415307942149218-201411061415309583736934.jpg", "level": "at grade", "latestRevisionID": 2833630, "modified": "2014-11-11T11:30:50-08:00", "summary": "An overview of Mendel's pea plant experiments.", "coverImageSatelliteUrl": "https://dr282zn36sxxg.cloudfront.net/datastreams/f-d%3A48bf79fd73c43f66ce9d0efa77baa0455ddd1b1379d0d77b455a63fa%2BIMAGE%2BIMAGE.1", "encodedID": "SCI.BIO.311.L.1", "artifactType": "lesson"}]}, "isModality": 1, "modality": {"artifact_type": "lesson", "weight_teacher": 10, "student_show": true, "display_label": "Read", "weight_student": 10}, "revisionInLibrary": null, "coverImageThumbLarge": "/flx/show/THUMB_LARGE/cover%20page/293886b87ffb56a9841d982ec241f76b-201311051383682385751799-201311051383682803183066.jpg", "modality_display_label": "Read", "hasXhtml": true, "foundationGrid": [[40377, "Mendel's Pea Plants", "SCI.LSC.311", "Mendels-Pea-Plants-in-Life-Science", "life-science"]], "stateGrid": [], "creatorLogin": "ck12editor", "extendedArtifacts": {}, "creatorID": 3, "authors": [], "post": {"section": {"3.9": {"domain": {"term": "Mendel's Laws and Genetics", "handle": "Mendels-Laws-and-Genetics-in-Life-Science", "description": "", "parent": {"term": "Gregor Mendel and Genetics", "handle": "Gregor-Mendel-and-Genetics-in-Life-Science", "description": "", "parent": {"term": "Molecular Biology and Genetics", "handle": "Molecular-Biology-and-Genetics-in-Life-Science", "description": "", "parent": {"term": "Life Science", "handle": "Life-Science", "description": null, "parent": {"term": "Science", "handle": "Science", "description": null, "parent": {"term": "root", "handle": "root", "description": null, "encodedID": "CKT", "branch": null, "previewImageUrl": "http://www.ck12.org/media/images/modality_generic_icons/concept_gicon.png", "from": "domain", "subject": "CKT", "type": "domain", "id": 1, "name": "root"}, "previewImageUrl": "http://concepts.ck12.org/preview/introduction-to-animals.jpg", "encodedID": "SCI", "branch": null, "parentID": 1, "from": "domain", "subject": "SCI", "type": "domain", "id": 9, "name": "Science"}, "previewImageUrl": "http://concepts.ck12.org/preview/lifescience.jpg", "encodedID": "SCI.LSC", "branch": "LSC", "parentID": 9, "from": "domain", "subject": "SCI", "type": "domain", "id": 24781, "branchInfo": {"term": "Life Science", "handle": "Life-Science", "description": null, "previewImageUrl": "http://concepts.ck12.org/preview/lifescience.jpg", "encodedID": "SCI.LSC", "branch": "LSC", "parentID": 9, "from": "domain", "subject": "SCI", "type": "domain", "id": 24781, "name": "Life Science"}, "name": "Life Science"}, "previewImageUrl": "http://concepts.ck12.org/preview/molecular-biology-and-genetics.jpg", "encodedID": "SCI.LSC.300", "branch": "LSC", "parentID": 24781, "from": "domain", "subject": "SCI", "type": "domain", "id": 40375, "branchInfo": {"term": "Life Science", "handle": "Life-Science", "description": null, "previewImageUrl": "http://concepts.ck12.org/preview/lifescience.jpg", "encodedID": "SCI.LSC", "branch": "LSC", "parentID": 9, "from": "domain", "subject": "SCI", "type": "domain", "id": 24781, "name": "Life Science"}, "name": "Molecular Biology and Genetics"}, "previewImageUrl": "http://concepts.ck12.org/preview/gregor-mendel-and-genetics.jpg", "encodedID": "SCI.LSC.310", "branch": "LSC", "parentID": 40375, "from": "domain", "subject": "SCI", "type": "domain", "id": 40376, "branchInfo": {"term": "Life Science", "handle": "Life-Science", "description": null, "previewImageUrl": "http://concepts.ck12.org/preview/lifescience.jpg", "encodedID": "SCI.LSC", "branch": "LSC", "parentID": 9, "from": "domain", "subject": "SCI", "type": "domain", "id": 24781, "name": "Life Science"}, "name": "Gregor Mendel and Genetics"}, "previewImageUrl": "http://concepts.ck12.org/preview/mendels-laws-and-genetics.jpg", "encodedID": "SCI.LSC.314", "branch": "LSC", "parentID": 40376, "from": "domain", "subject": "SCI", "type": "domain", "id": 40378, "branchInfo": {"term": "Life Science", "handle": "Life-Science", "description": null, "previewImageUrl": "http://concepts.ck12.org/preview/lifescience.jpg", "encodedID": "SCI.LSC", "branch": "LSC", "parentID": 9, "from": "domain", "subject": "SCI", "type": "domain", "id": 24781, "name": "Life Science"}, "name": "Mendel's Laws and Genetics"}, "creator": "CK-12", "contributor": null, "lastRead": null, "perma": "/lesson/Mendels-Laws-and-Genetics-Basic", "id": 1105722, "realm": null, "title": "Mendel's Laws and Genetics", "creatorAuthID": 3, "exerciseCount": 0, "feedbacks": {"rating": {"count": 0, "average": 0, "1": 0, "3": 0, "2": 0, "5": 0, "4": 0}, "voting": {"dislike": 0, "like": 6}}, "gradeGrid": [], "subjectGrid": [], "internalTagGrid": [], "messageToUsers": null, "type": {"modality": true, "extensionType": "L", "description": "The lesson artifact", "name": "lesson", "id": 3}, "searchGrid": [], "revision": "21", "artifactRevisionID": 2150998, "handle": "Mendels-Laws-and-Genetics-Basic", "isModality": 1, "revisionInLibrary": null, "hasXhtml": true, "foundationGrid": [[40378, "Mendel's Laws and Genetics", "SCI.LSC.314", "Mendels-Laws-and-Genetics-in-Life-Science", "life-science"]], "stateGrid": [], "creatorLogin": "ck12editor", "extendedArtifacts": {}, "creatorID": 3, "authors": [], "artifactID": 1105722, "latestRevision": "31", "license": "CC BY NC", "created": "2012-11-29T18:15:13-08:00", "coverImage": "/flx/show/cover%20page/82d4a353dbea6f721e480a8418a8457a-201311051383682385833748-201311051383682813224087.jpg", "level": "at grade", "latestRevisionID": 2911774, "modified": "2014-12-15T18:58:31-08:00", "summary": "Introduces the law of segregation and dominant and recessive traits.", "coverImageSatelliteUrl": "https://dr282zn36sxxg.cloudfront.net/datastreams/f-d%3Ae4c4e345ccec5a7da43787fef4785e763b4514e5a6ae535299458eb3%2BCOVER_PAGE%2BCOVER_PAGE.1", "encodedID": "SCI.LSC.314.L.1", "artifactType": "lesson"}}, "parent": null}, "level": "at grade", "vocabulary_info": null, "artifactID": 1105720, "latestRevision": "30", "contributed_by": "", "license": "CC BY NC", "tagGrid": [[2506, "genetics"], [2534, "Mendel"], [15300, "inherit"], [15301, "cross-pollinate"], [15302, "self-pollinate"], [15303, "SCI.BIO.311.L.2"], [18772, "SCI.LSC.311.L.1"]], "coverImage": "/flx/show/cover%20page/293886b87ffb56a9841d982ec241f76b-201311051383682385751799-201311051383682803183066.jpg", "created": "2012-11-29T18:15:03-08:00", "latestRevisionID": 2911772, "modified": "2014-12-15T18:58:14-08:00", "summary": "Introduces Mendel's study of genetics.", "coverImageSatelliteUrl": "https://dr282zn36sxxg.cloudfront.net/datastreams/f-d%3A2944b2061155839b950003cda818cd549de3bd1e78a47587ce41f809%2BCOVER_PAGE%2BCOVER_PAGE.1", "encodedID": "SCI.LSC.311.L.1", "standardGrid": {}, "artifactType": "lesson", "url_mobi": "/flx/show/mobi/Mendels-Pea-Plants-Basic_l_v21_iym.mobi"}; window.context_json_encoded = {"domain": {"term": "Science", "handle": "Science", "description": null, "parent": {"term": "root", "handle": "root", "description": null, "encodedID": "CKT", "branch": null, "previewImageUrl": "http://www.ck12.org/media/images/modality_generic_icons/concept_gicon.png", "from": "domain", "subject": "CKT", "type": "domain", "id": 1, "name": "root"}, "previewImageUrl": "http://concepts.ck12.org/preview/introduction-to-animals.jpg", "encodedID": "SCI", "branch": null, "parentID": 1, "from": "domain", "subject": "SCI", "type": "domain", "id": 9, "name": "Science"}, "creator": "CK-12", "labels": [], "contributor": null, "handle": "CK-12-Life-Science-Concepts-For-Middle-School", "perma": "book/CK-12-Life-Science-Concepts-For-Middle-School/", "url_pdf": ["/flx/show/pdf/CK-12-Life-Science-Concepts-For-Middle-School_b_v22_1zl_s2.pdf", "/flx/show/pdf/CK-12-Life-Science-Concepts-For-Middle-School_b_v22_v65_s1.pdf"], "url_epub": "/flx/show/epub/CK-12-Life-Science-Concepts-For-Middle-School_b_v22_xpc.epub", "feedbacks": {"rating": {"count": 0, "average": 0, "1": 0, "3": 0, "2": 0, "5": 0, "4": 0}, "voting": {"dislike": 14, "like": 44}}, "conceptNode": "CK.SCI.ENG.SE", "realm": null, "resourceCounts": {"epubk": 1, "mobi": 1, "allVideos": 0, "image": 1, "cover page": 1, "allAttachments": 0, "contents": 1, "pdf": 2, "epub": 1}, "title": "CK-12 Life Science Concepts For Middle School", "coverImageThumbSmall": "/flx/show/THUMB_SMALL/cover%20page/CK12_LS_CC_Cover-201308211377114874227258.jpg", "standardGrid": {}, "creatorAuthID": 3, "exerciseCount": 0, "id": 1106203, "gradeGrid": [], "handle-encoded": true, "subjectGrid": [], "internalTagGrid": [], "messageToUsers": "Teachers and parents can access additional teaching materials from the Resources Tab above.", "isLatest": false, "xhtml": "\n\n \n \n \n \n

\n Front Matter\n

\n

\n Foreword\n

\n

\n Preface\n

\n

\n The study of life is one of the fundamental fields of the middle school curriculum. The CK-12 Life Science Concepts presents life science as a set of 12 concepts, with each concept centered around a specific category, such as cell biology or human biology. Each concept is comprised of a series of lessons, with each lesson focusing on one specific topic. The complete Life Science Concepts is comprised of over 250 lessons. These lessons present life science to the middle school student in an easy to follow, easily understandable format.\n

\n

\n Chapters\n

\n

\n \"\"\n

\n
\n \n
\n

\n Back Matter\n

\n \n\n", "type": {"modality": false, "extensionType": "FB", "description": "The book artifact (student or default edition)", "name": "book", "id": 1}, "searchGrid": [], "revision": "22", "artifactRevisionID": 2151577, "lastRead": null, "isModality": 0, "revisionInLibrary": null, "coverImageThumbLarge": "/flx/show/THUMB_LARGE/cover%20page/CK12_LS_CC_Cover-201308211377114874227258.jpg", "hasXhtml": true, "foundationGrid": [[9, "Science", "SCI", "Science", null], [24781, "Life Science", "SCI.LSC", "Life-Science", "life-science"]], "stateGrid": [], "creatorLogin": "ck12editor", "extendedArtifacts": {}, "creatorID": 3, "authors": [], "level": "at grade", "artifactID": 1106203, "latestRevision": "104", "contributed_by": "", "license": "CC BY NC", "tagGrid": [[2209, "life science"], [8268, "concepts"], [10091, "middle school"], [15979, "CK.SCI.ENG.SE.1.Life-Science-Concepts"]], "coverImage": "/flx/show/cover%20page/CK12_LS_CC_Cover-201308211377114874227258.jpg", "created": "2012-11-29T18:43:00-08:00", "latestRevisionID": 2912313, "modified": "2014-12-15T20:12:01-08:00", "summary": "Life Science concepts for middle school.", "coverImageSatelliteUrl": "https://dr282zn36sxxg.cloudfront.net/datastreams/f-d%3Ae7f8e25dfaa88e883263b606a349305318b1eae9159210f484efbb1e%2BCOVER_PAGE%2BCOVER_PAGE.1", "encodedID": "CK.SCI.ENG.SE.1.Life-Science-Concepts", "artifactType": "book", "url_mobi": "/flx/show/mobi/CK-12-Life-Science-Concepts-For-Middle-School_b_v22_oby.mobi"};

Original text