5.1: TwoDimensional Vectors
Brian was telling Tanya about his trip across the river earlier that day. If he wanted to be accurate and describe how the current made it very difficult for him to actually drive straight across, how could he clearly show the different forces of the motor on his boat pushing one way and the current pushing another? Specifically, how could he show that the boat was crossing the stream at 35km/hr, and the current was pushing him downstream at 25km/hr?
Watch This
Embedded Video:
 Khan Academy: Introduction to Vectors and Scalars
Guidance
Throughout the study of vectors we will be using boldface type to indicate vector quantities and regular face type for scalar quantities, whether we are using the endpoints of the vector or another variable to represent the vector quantity: AB or r. Another way to symbolize vector quantities is to use letters with arrows over them. For example, physicists use \begin{align*}\overrightarrow {v}\end{align*}
Vectors can be represented graphically using an arrow which points from the vector’s initial point to its terminal point. The length of the arrowshaft represents the magnitude of the vector. The arrowhead identifies the vector’s direction.
Vectors AB and CD have the same magnitude and the same direction, so we can say that AB = CD, even if they don’t have the same location in space. Vectors AB and EF have the same magnitude, but they have opposite directions, therefore EF = – AB. The magnitude of a vector is a scalar quantity which can be symbolized by  AB ,  r , \begin{align*}\overrightarrow {v}\end{align*}
Vectors can also be represented algebraically, using component notation. The components tell us the extent of the vector along the coordinate directions. For example, the vector on the left in the image below has components in both the xdirection, AB_{x}, and the ydirection, AB_{y}. Here, AB_{x} = 4 and AB_{y} = 3 because point B is 3 units to the right and 3 units up from point A. Similarly, vector D has components D_{x} = 3 and D_{y} = –1.25. The negative sign in D_{y} indicates that the ycomponent of vector D is downward, in the negative y direction. As with other numbers, we usually only include the negative sign explicitly.
Sometimes bracket notation is used to identify the components of a vector. The components of the vector are written as an ordered set of values, similar to the coordinates of a point in space. For example, vector \begin{align*}AB = \left \langle 4,3\right \rangle\end{align*}
If the coordinate system is polar rather than rectangular, a vector is identified by its magnitude and its direction with respect to the xaxis (or raxis). In the case of the vector below, A = 10 m @ 30^{o}.
The process of determining the components of a vector is also known as resolving the vector. For example, if we wish to convert the radial coordinate notation for vector A into rectangular coordinates, we can use right triangle trigonometry to resolve the vector. First, create a right triangle with the vector as the hypotenuse and with the two legs of the triangle parallel to the rectangular coordinate axes. Then, according to the definitions of sine and cosine, A_{x} =  A  cos 30 and A_{y} =  A  sin 30.
Example A
Express the statements in your own words:

a) \begin{align*}AB_x = CD_x : AB_y = CD_y\end{align*}
ABx=CDx:ABy=−CDy

b) Vector \begin{align*}AB = \left \langle 4,6\right \rangle\end{align*}
AB=⟨4,6⟩
Solutions
 a) Vector AB component x is equal to vector CD component x, AB component y is the same magnitude as CD component y, but in the opposite direction.
 b) Vector AB has x component of 4 units, and y component of 6 units.
Example B
What are the x and y components of the vectors shown in the diagram?
Solution
AB  CD  EF  GH  IJ  KL  MN  

x  component  2.25  1.5  0  1.5  2.0  1.5  2.25 
y  component  0.25  2.0  2.25  2.0  1.5  2.0  0 
In the diagram, each division is 0.25 units. All vectors which point toward the left have negative xcomponents and those that point downward have negative ycomponents. Notice that for the horizontal vector, MN, the ycomponent is equal to 0. Likewise, for the vertical vector, EF, the xcomponent is equal to 0.
Example C
 (a) Which of the vectors in Example #1 is equal to vector CD?
 (b) Which vector is equal to –CD?
Solution
 (a) Vector GH = CD. Both vectors have the same length and the same orientation.
 (b) Vector KL = –CD. Both vectors have the same length and the two vectors point in opposite directions.
Concept question wrapup If a boat is being motored perpendicularly at 35km/hr across a stream which is flowing at 25km/hr, how can the direction and speed that it travels be clearly shown using vectors? There are a number of possible notations, one example is: In vector notation, the x component is 30 units, and the y component is 25 units.
Brian could also draw a diagram and represent the speed of the boat with an arrow 35units long, and the current with an arrow 25units long. 

Vocabulary
The magnitude of a value is a description of how "big" it is, in other words, the absolute value of a number.
A scalar is a value representing only a magnitude, or size. Scalars can expressed with a single number.
A vector is a value representing a magnitude and a direction. Vectors cannot be expressed with only a single value.
Guided Practice
Questions
1) Two vectors, \begin{align*}\overrightarrow{A}\end{align*}
2) For the two vectors \begin{align*}\overrightarrow{A}\end{align*}
3) \begin{align*}\overrightarrow{A} = \left \langle 12, 7, 9.5 \right \rangle\end{align*}
4)A vector can be written as \begin{align*}\overrightarrow{R} = 2.74 m\end{align*}
Solutions
1) Two vectors, \begin{align*}\overrightarrow{A}\end{align*}

The \begin{align*}\hat{x}\end{align*}
x^ and \begin{align*}\hat{y}\end{align*}y^ components of a vector are the extensions of the vector along the \begin{align*}\hat{x}\end{align*}x^ and \begin{align*}\hat{y}\end{align*}y^ directions. Here we can obtain that information off of the grid in the diagram. Vector A begins at (2, 1) and ends at (2.75, 1.5), therefore its xcomponent is given by A_{x} = 2.75  (2) = 4.75 and its ycomponent is given by A_{y} = 1.5  1 = 0.5.  Vector B begins at (4, 2) and ends at (1.75, 1.5), therefore its xcomponent is given by B_{x} = 1.75  4 = 2.25 and its ycomponent is given by B_{y} = 1.5  2 = 3.5
2) For the two vectors \begin{align*}\overrightarrow{A}\end{align*}

As we saw in the previous problem, \begin{align*}\overrightarrow{A} = \left \langle 4.75, 0.5 \right \rangle\end{align*}
A→=⟨4.75,0.5⟩ and \begin{align*}\overrightarrow{B} = \left \langle 2.25, 3.5 \right \rangle\end{align*}B→=⟨−2.25,−3.5⟩ . To add the two vectors, we add the xcomponents together and we add the ycomponents together to give \begin{align*}\overrightarrow{C} = \left \langle (4.75 + (2.25)),(3.5 + 0.5)\right \rangle = \left \langle 2.5, 3 \right \rangle\end{align*}C→=⟨(4.75+(−2.25)),(−3.5+0.5)⟩=⟨2.5,−3⟩ 
We can also add these two vectors graphically by positioning \begin{align*}\overrightarrow{A}\end{align*}
A→ and \begin{align*}\overrightarrow{B}\end{align*}B→ head to tail. Vector \begin{align*}\overrightarrow{A}\end{align*}A→ is the single vector that begins where \begin{align*}\overrightarrow{A}\end{align*}A→ begins and ends where \begin{align*}\overrightarrow{B}\end{align*}B→ ends. As you can see from the diagram, the components of vector \begin{align*}\overrightarrow{C}\end{align*}C→ are \begin{align*}C_x = 2.5\end{align*}Cx=2.5 and \begin{align*}C_y = 3\end{align*}Cy=−3 .  }}
3) \begin{align*}\overrightarrow{A} = \left \langle 12, 7, 9.5 \right \rangle\end{align*}

Use standard algebraic techniques to solve for \begin{align*}\overrightarrow{C}\end{align*}
C→ : 
\begin{align*}\frac{1} {2} \overrightarrow{C} = \frac{2} {5} \overrightarrow{B}  \overrightarrow{A}\end{align*}
12C→=25B→−A→ 
\begin{align*}\overrightarrow{C} = \frac{4} {5} \overrightarrow{B}  2\overrightarrow{A}\end{align*}
C→=45B→−2A→  Remember that multiplying a vector by a scalar means multiplying each of the vector’s components by that vector. Therefore,
 \begin{align*}\frac{4} {5} \overrightarrow{B} = \left \langle \left (\frac{4} {5}* 8\right ), \left (\frac{4} {5}* 8\right ), \left (\frac{4} {5}* 11\right )\right \rangle = \left \langle \left (\frac{32} {5}\right ), \left (\frac{32} {5}\right ), \left (\frac{44} {5}\right )\right \rangle = \left \langle 6.4, 6.4, 8.8 \right \rangle\end{align*}
 \begin{align*}2\overrightarrow{A} = \left \langle(2*12), (2*7), (2*9.5)\right \rangle = \left \langle 24, 14, 19\right \rangle\end{align*}
 Therefore
 \begin{align*}\overrightarrow{C} = \left \langle(6.4  24), (6.4  14), (8.8  19)\right \rangle = \left \langle 17.6, 7.6, 10.2 \right \rangle\end{align*}
4) A vector can be written as \begin{align*}\overrightarrow{R} = 2.74m\end{align*} @ \begin{align*}60^\circ\end{align*}.
 Identify this same vector using component notation.
 When resolving a twodimensional vector into components, remember that the vector itself is always the hypotenuse of a right triangle. If we define the xaxis as pointing from the origin along θ = 0^{o} and the yaxis as pointing along θ = 90^{o}, the xcomponent is given by R_{x} = R cos θ and R_{y} = R sin θ. In this case,
 R_{x} = R cos θ = (2.74m) cos 60^{o} = 1.37m
 R_{y} = R sin θ = (2.74m) sin 60^{o} = 2.37m
Practice
 Can the x or y component of a vector ever have a greater magnitude than the vector itself?
 If two vectors have magnitudes that are not equal, can the sums of their magnitudes ever be zero?
Use the counterclockwise (from East) convention to determine the direction. Use the indicated scale and a scale conversion to determine the magnitude.
 Given the scale: \begin{align*}1cm = 10m/s\end{align*}, determine the magnitude and direction of the vector in the diagram.
 Given the scale: \begin{align*}1cm = 50 km/hr \end{align*}, determine the magnitude and direction of this vector.
Using the Cartesian coordinate system, draw the vectors.
 \begin{align*}A = 1x + 2y\end{align*}
 \begin{align*}B = 2x + 2y\end{align*}
 \begin{align*}C = 2x  3y\end{align*}
 Identify and plot the three angles, (a,b,c) to describe the direction of each vector.
Calculate the magnitude and angles of each vector.
 \begin{align*}A = 1x + 2y\end{align*} a)Magnitude: b)Angle:
 \begin{align*}B = 2x + 2y\end{align*} a)Magnitude: b)Angle:
 \begin{align*}C = 2x  3y\end{align*} a)Magnitude: b)Angle:
Describe and sketch the set of all points (x; y) in \begin{align*}IR^2\end{align*} that satisfy
 \begin{align*}x = y \end{align*}
 \begin{align*}x + y = 1\end{align*}
 \begin{align*}x^2 + y^2 = 4\end{align*}
 \begin{align*}x^2+ y^2 = 2y\end{align*}
Identify the vectors using component notation
 A vector can be written as \begin{align*}\overrightarrow{R} = 3.45m\end{align*} @ \begin{align*}170^\circ\end{align*}.
 A vector can be written as \begin{align*}\overrightarrow{R} = 11m\end{align*} @ \begin{align*}90^\circ\end{align*}.
 A vector can be written as \begin{align*}\overrightarrow{R} = 7.23m\end{align*} @ \begin{align*}45^\circ\end{align*}.
 A vector can be written as \begin{align*}\overrightarrow{R} = 2.7m\end{align*} @ \begin{align*}235^\circ\end{align*}.
 A vector can be written as \begin{align*}\overrightarrow{R} = 23.75m\end{align*} @ \begin{align*}255^\circ\end{align*}.
Bearing
Bearing is how direction is measured at sea. North is , east is , south is , and west is .Component notation
Component notation is used to describe vectors algebraically in terms of their , and, if relevant, components.Distance Formula
The distance between two points and can be defined as .force diagram
A force diagram is a collection of vectors that each represent a force like gravity or wind acting on an object.initial point
The initial point of a vector is where the vector starts, also known as the tail of the vector.Magnitude
The magnitude of a line segment or vector is the length of the line segment or vector.Pythagorean Theorem
The Pythagorean Theorem is a mathematical relationship between the sides of a right triangle, given by , where and are legs of the triangle and is the hypotenuse of the triangle.resolving
The process of determining the components of a vector is known as resolving the vector.Scalar
A scalar is a value representing only magnitude or size. Scalars can expressed with a single number.terminal point
The terminal point of a vector is where the vector ends, represented by an arrow.Vector
A vector is a mathematical quantity that has both a magnitude and a direction.Image Attributions
Description
Learning Objectives
Here you will learn how to read and write vector notation. You will also explore uses of vector notation in physics.