# Chapter 12: Probability

## Introduction

In Math 7, the learning content is divided into Concepts. Each Concept is complete and whole providing focused learning on an indicated objective. Theme-based Concepts provide students with experiences that integrate the content of each Concept. Students are given opportunities to practice the skills of each Concept through real-world situations, examples, guided practice and independent practice sections. There are also video links provided to give students an audio/visual way of connecting with the content. In this Chapter, students will engage with Concepts on writing and calculating theoretical probability, experimental probability, disjoint events, complementary events, overlapping events, tree diagrams, sample spaces, the Counting Principle, factorials, permutations, combinations, tree diagrams, independent and dependent events.

## Chapter Outline

- 12.1. Definition of Probability
- 12.2. Measurement of Probability
- 12.3. Empirical Probability
- 12.4. Mutually Exclusive Events
- 12.5. Mutually Inclusive Events
- 12.6. Complement Rule for Probability
- 12.7. Counting Events
- 12.8. Sample Spaces and Events
- 12.9. Additive and Multiplicative Rules for Probability
- 12.10. Basic Counting Rules
- 12.11. Counting Rule to Calculate Probabilities
- 12.12. Permutations
- 12.13. Permutation Problems
- 12.14. Combinations
- 12.15. Combination Problems
- 12.16. Independent Events
- 12.17. Probability of Independent Events
- 12.18. Dependent Events

### Chapter Summary

## Summary

Having completed this chapter, students are now finished with this book. Each Concept has provided students with an opportunity to engage and practice skills in many Concepts including writing and calculating theoretical probability, experimental probability, disjoint events, complementary events, overlapping events, tree diagrams, sample spaces, the Counting Principle, factorials, permutations, combinations, tree diagrams, independent and dependent events.