## Table of Contents

In CK-12 Middle School Math Concepts – Grade 8, the learning content is divided into concepts. Each concept is complete and provides focused learning on an indicated objective. Theme-based concepts provide students with experiences that integrate the content of each concept. Students are given opportunities to practice the skills of each concept through real-world situations, examples, guided practice and explore more practice. There are also video links provided to give students an audiovisual way of connecting with the content.

- 1. Using Algebra
This chapter covers: bar graphs, histograms, frequency tables, order of operations, variable expressions, single-variable equations, perimeter, area, formula, distance, rate, time, problem-solving plan, problem-solving strategies.

- 2. Using Rational Numbers
This chapter covers: adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing decimals, fractions and integers, estimation with decimals and fractions, integer operations and problem solving, problem solving with decimals, fractions and integers, identifying and comparing rational numbers, and using number properties with decimals, fractions and integers.

- 3. Single Variable Equations and Inequalities
This chapter covers: solving one-step, two-step and multi-step equations, combining like terms, the distributive property, solving and graphing inequalities, writing equations and inequalities to represent real-world situations, solving one-step, two-step and multi-step inequalities, problem solving.

- 4. Applying Proportions
This chapter covers: ratios, unit rates, equivalent rates, solving proportions, unit scale, scale factor, scale drawings, maps and floor plans, customary and metric units of measurement and problem solving.

- 5. Applying Percents
This chapter covers: recognizing and writing percents, percents as decimals and fractions, finding the percent of a number, proportions and percents in problem solving, using the percent equation, percent of increase, percent of decrease, percent of change, discounts, retail prices, tipping, sales tax, statistics, percent problems and scientific notation, simple interest and compound interest.

- 6. Geometry and Transformations
identifying angle pairs, adjacent and vertical angles, measures of angle pairs, classifying and measuring triangles, classifying and measuring quadrilaterals, identifying polygons, methods for proving triangle congruence, all types of transformations, similarity and dilations

- 7. Using Real Numbers and Right Triangles
This chapter covers: evaluating radical expressions, evaluating fractional powers, solving equations with radicals, classifying and comparing real numbers, irrational numbers, the Pythagorean Theorem, the Converse of the Pythagorean Theorem, indirect measurement, perimeter, area, the distance formula, special right triangles and trigonometric ratios.

- 8. Measurement, Area and Volume
This chapter covers: finding area of triangles and quadrilaterals, finding circumference and area of circles, identifying solid figures, finding the surface area of different solid figures, and calculating the volume of different solid figures.

- 9. Linear Functions and Graphs
recognizing, evaluating and graphing functions, slope, slope-intercept form, standard form, linear equations, graphing linear equations, direct and inverse variation, function notation, linear systems of equations, solving linear systems, graphing linear systems, solving linear inequalities and graphing linear inequalities

- 10. Analyzing Data
This chapter covers: identifying mean, median, mode and range, standard deviations and measures of central tendency, interpreting different data displays including stem-and-leaf plots, frequency tables, histograms, box-and-whisker plots and scatterplots and using data displays to understand bias, misleading statistics, surveys and samples.

- 11. Using Probability
This chapter covers: calculating outcomes through tree diagrams and the Counting Principle, identifying and evaluating permutations and combinations, theoretical and experimental probability, writing probabilities as fractions, decimals and percents, calculating odds, identifying overlapping, disjoint and complementary events, recognizing independent and dependent events, understanding conditional and geometric probability, and using simulations to explore experimental probability.

- 12. Polynomials
This chapter covers: monomials, binomials, trinomials and polynomials, simplifying polynomials, evaluating polynomial expressions, adding and subtracting polynomial expressions, operations with monomials, binomials and trinomials, applying properties to monomial operations, parabolas and quadratic equations, writing quadratic equations from graphs, quadratic functions, exponential functions, recognizing and graphing exponential growth and decay functions, and understanding arithmetic and geometric sequences.