National Science Education Standards (Grades 9-12)
Content Standard A: Science as Inquiry
- Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry
- Understanding about scientific inquiry
Content Standard B: Physical Science:
- Structure and Properties of Matter
- A substance has characteristic properties, such as density, a boiling point, and solubility, all of which are independent of the amount of the sample. A mixture of substances often can be separated into the original substances using one or more of the characteristic properties.
- Motions and Forces
- Objects change their motion only when a net force is applied. Laws of motion are used to calculate precisely the effects of forces on the motion of objects. The magnitude of the change in motion can be calculated using the relationship F=ma, which is independent of the nature of the force. Whenever one object exerts force on another, a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction is exerted on the first object.
Content Standard E: Science and Technology
- Abilities of technological design
- Understandings about science and technology
- Science often advances with the introduction of new technologies. Solving technological problems often results in new scientific knowledge. New technologies often extend the current levels of scientific understanding and introduce new areas of research.
- Creativity, imagination, and a good knowledge base are all required in the work of science and engineering.
Content Standard F: Science in Personal and Social Perspectives
- Natural resources
- Human populations use resources in the environment in order to maintain and improve their existence. Natural resources have been and will continue to be used to maintain human populations.
- The earth does not have infinite resources; increasing human consumption places severe stress on the natural processes that renew some resources, and it depletes those resources that cannot be renewed.
- Environmental Quality
- Many factors influence environmental quality. Factors that students might investigate include population growth, resource use, population distribution, overconsumption, the capacity of technology to solve problems, poverty, the role of economic, political, and religious views, and different ways humans view the earth.
Content Standard G: History and Nature of Science
- Nature of science
- It is part of scientific inquiry to evaluate the results of scientific investigations, experiments, observations, theoretical models, and the explanations proposed by other scientists. Evaluation includes reviewing the experimental procedures, examining the evidence, identifying faulty reasoning, pointing out statements that go beyond the evidence, and suggesting alternative explanations for the same observations.
National Council for Teachers of Mathematics Standards
Data Analysis and Probability Standards
Formulate questions that can be addressed with data and collect, organize, and display relevant data to answer them:
- Understand the meaning of measurement data and categorical data, of univariate and bivariate data, and of the term variable
- Understand histograms, parallel box plots, and scatterplots and use them to display data
Select and use appropriate statistical methods to analyze data:
- For univariate measurement data, be able to display the distribution, describe its shape, and select and calculate summary statistics
Develop and evaluate inferences and predictions that are based on the data:
- Understand how sample statistics reflect the values of population parameters and use sampling distributions as the basis for informal inference
Understand and apply basic concepts of probability:
- Understand the concepts of sample space and probability distribution and construct sample spaces and distributions in simple cases
Standards for Technological Literacy
Standards viewable at http://www.iteawww.org/service/sitemap/.
The Nature of Technology
- Standard 3: Students will develop an understanding of the relationships among technologies and the connections between technology and other fields of study.
Technology and Society
- Standard 6: Students will develop an understanding of the role of society in the development and use of technology.
- Standard 9: Students will develop an understanding of engineering design
- Standard 10: Students will develop an understanding of the role of troubleshooting, research and development, invention and innovation, and experimentation in problem solving.
Abilities for a Technological World
- Standard 12: Students will develop abilities to use/maintain technological products and systems