# Chapter 13: Heat

**At Grade**Created by: CK-12

We know that heat rises from a hot object. This chapter studies the details of how heat moves between objects, based on their temperature and other properties. Topics will include temperature, kinetic theory of temperature, heat energy, and heat transfer via conduction, convection, and radiation.

### Chapter Summary

1. The conversion from temperature expressed in Celsius to kelvin is

\begin{align*}T_K=T_C \left(1 \frac{K}{C}\right)+273^\circ K\end{align*}

2. The relationship between the average kinetic energy of a gas and its temperature is \begin{align*}\overline{K} \overline{E}=\frac{1}{2} m(\overline{v}_t)^2=\frac{3}{2}kT\end{align*}

3. The internal energy can be directly related to the temperature of a gas as \begin{align*}U=N \left(\frac{3}{2} kT\right) \rightarrow U=\frac{3}{2} NkT\end{align*}

4. Energy that is transferred from one object to another object due to a temperature difference between the objects is called heat.

5. The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius is defined as one *calorie*, or, as it is sometimes referred to, one “small” calorie. The calorie is therefore a measure of energy and it is equal to about 4.186 J.

Definition: \begin{align*}1000 \ small \ calories=1 \ food \ calorie=4186J \rightarrow 1.00kcal = 1.00kC=4186J\end{align*}

6. Energy can be transferred in three ways: through *conduction, convection,* and *radiation*.

a. Conduction occurs when a temperature difference exists causing the molecules of an object to transmit energy throughout the object.

b. Convection typically arises from the movement of gases or liquids over large distances.

c. Radiation is energy transferred by electromagnetic waves (or photons).

7. The relationship between the rate of heat flow (heat conduction) \begin{align*}\frac{\Delta E}{\Delta t}\end{align*}

8. The specific heat \begin{align*}c\end{align*}

The change in temperature \begin{align*}\Delta T\end{align*}

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