<img src="https://d5nxst8fruw4z.cloudfront.net/atrk.gif?account=iA1Pi1a8Dy00ym" style="display:none" height="1" width="1" alt="" />
Skip Navigation
You are reading an older version of this FlexBook® textbook: CK-12 Physics - Intermediate Go to the latest version.

Chapter 14: Thermodynamics

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12

Chapter Outline

Chapter Summary

1. The ideal gas law states PV=nRT where P is pressure, V is volume, n is the number of moles of substance, R is the universal gas constant and T is temperature.

2. Thermodynamics is the study of processes in which energy is transferred by heat and work.

3. In an isothermal process, temperature is constant

4. In an isochoric process, volume is constant

5. In an isobaric process, pressure is constant

6. In an adiabatic process, no heat flows into or out of the system

7. The first law of thermodynamics: The change in the internal energy of a closed system is equal to the heat into (or out of) a system plus the work done on the system (or by the system).

ΔU=Q+W,ΔU is the change in internal energy of the system, Q is the heat, and W the work.

8. The second law of thermodynamics describes the direction in which physical phenomena can occur.

Statements describing the second law:

a. Heat can flow spontaneously from hot to cold but never from cold to hot.

b. No heat machine is 100% efficient.

The most general statement of the second law:

For all natural processes, the total entropy of a system increases.

9. The efficiency of an actual heat engine can be expressed as


The high temperature thermal energy is QH and the low temperature thermal energy is QL.

10. The efficiency of a Carnot engine can be expressed as


The high operating temperature of the Carnot engine is TH and the low operating temperature of the Carnot engine TL.

Image Attributions


Difficulty Level:

At Grade




Search Keywords:

Date Created:

Dec 05, 2014

Last Modified:

Oct 16, 2015
Save or share your relevant files like activites, homework and worksheet.
To add resources, you must be the owner of the FlexBook® textbook. Please Customize the FlexBook® textbook.
Please wait...
Please wait...
Image Detail
Sizes: Medium | Original

Original text