In this chapter you will learn about testing claims and hypotheses. The process of testing a claim using statistics is actually rather simple. You identify the value you are testing and the value you are comparing it to and determine the likelihood that they could both come from the same process by simple chance. If the probability of both occurring by chance is extremely small, beyond a specified threshold, you determine that there must be something causing the discrepancy.

You will also learn about predicting values for which you have no observed data. By calculating the location of a line representing the best trend of observed data, you can make educated predictions regarding the values of data points beyond the scope of your observations.

## Chapter Outline

- 10.1. The Null Hypothesis
- 10.2. Critical Values
- 10.3. Tails
- 10.4. Confidence Intervals
- 10.5. The T-Test
- 10.6. Putting it Together

### Chapter Summary

Students were introduced to the concepts of hypothesis testing and predicting values. The concept of the null and alternative hypothesis were introduced and practiced. The tails of a curve were described as were critical values and critical regions and their association with alpha values. Students learned about confidence intervals and learned the meaning of confidence level. The similarities between *T* and *Z* testing were reviewed and students practiced using both to test hypotheses in word problems.