6.7: Intersections of Polar Curves
You are working in Art Class one afternoon and decide to draw the "Olympic Rings". These are a set of rings that lock together and are the symbol of the Olympics.
You do this on the computer by generating a circle for each of the rings using an equation in polar coordinates. The equations you use for the first two rings are
Watch This
James Sousa: Graphing Polar Equations on the TI84 Graphing Calculator
Guidance
When you worked with a system of linear equations with two unknowns, finding the point of intersection of the equations meant finding the coordinates of the point that satisfied both equations. If the equations are rectangular equations for curves, determining the point(s) of intersection of the curves involves solving the equations algebraically since each point will have one ordered pair of coordinates associated with it.
Example A
Solve the following system of equations algebraically:
Solution: Before solving the system, graph the equations to determine the number of points of intersection.
The graph of
Using the quadratic formula,
These values must be substituted into one of the original equations.
The three points of intersection as determined algebraically in Cartesian representation are
If we are working with polar equations to determine the polar coordinates of a point of intersection, we must remember that there are many polar coordinates that represent the same point. Remember that switching to polar form changes a great deal more than the notation. Unlike the Cartesian system which has one name for each point, the polar system has an infinite number of names for each point. One option would be to convert the polar coordinates to rectangular form and then to convert the coordinates for the intersection points back to polar form. Perhaps the best option would be to explore some examples. As these examples are presented, be sure to use your graphing calculator to create your own visual representations of the equations presented.
Example B
Determine the polar coordinates for the intersection point(s) of the following polar equations:
Solution: Begin with the graph. Using the process described in the technology section in this chapter; create the graph of these polar equations on your graphing calculator. Once the graphs are on the screen, use the trace function and the arrow keys to move the cursor around each graph. As the cursor is moved, you will notice that the equation of the curve is shown in the upper left corner and the values of
The points of intersection are
Example C
Find the intersection of the graphs of
Solution: Begin with the graph. You can create these graphs using your graphing calculator.
If you consider that
From this investigation, the point (0, 0) was on the curve
Sometimes it is helpful to convert the equations to rectangular form, solve the system and then convert the polar coordinates back to polar form.
Vocabulary
Intersection: The intersection is the place where the graphs of two equations meet each other.
Guided Practice
1. Find the intersection of the graphs of
2. Find the intersection of the graphs of
3. Determine two polar curves that will never intersect.
Solutions:
1.
There appears to be one point of intersection.
The point of intersection is (0, 0)
2.
Since both equations have a solution at
The points of intersection are
3. There are several answers here. The most obvious are any two pairs of circles, for example
Concept Problem Solution
The goal is the find the place where the two equations meet. Therefore, you want the point where they are equal. Mathematically, this is:
Practice
Find all points of intersection for each of the following pairs of graphs. Answers should be in polar coordinates with

r=2 andr=2cosθ 
r=3 andr=3sinθ 
r=1 andr=2sinθ 
r=sinθ andr=1+sinθ 
r=sin2θ andr=2sinθ 
r=3+3sinθ andr=3−3cosθ 
r=cos3θ andr=sin3θ 
r=sin2θ andr=sin3θ 
r=3cosθ andr=2−cosθ 
r=cosθ andr=1−cosθ 
r=3sinθ andr=2−sinθ 
r2=sinθ andr2=cosθ 
r2=sin2θ andr2=cos2θ  Explain why one point of intersection of polar graphs can be represented by an infinite number of polar coordinate pairs.
 Explain why the point (0,0) in polar coordinates is not always found as a point of intersection when solving for points of intersection algebraically.
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Image Attributions
Here you'll learn to algebraically find the intersection of two curves written in polar coordinates.