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# 8.1: Digestion and Nutrition Glossary

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amino acids
the building blocks of proteins.
amylase
an enzyme that digests starch.
anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder that causes malnutrition, loss of body fluid, and vitamin and mineral deficiencies.
bulimia
an eating disorder in which the person overeats or “binges” and then uses laxatives or forces vomiting to prevent the absorption of food in the intestines.
calorie (cal)
the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 milliliter (1 cc) of water 1 degree Celsius $(1^\circ C)$.
calorie (Cal)
the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 liter (1,000 cc) of water 1 degree Celsius $(1^\circ C)$. The energy in food is usually measured in Calories.
carbohydrates
food nutrients that provide energy and building blocks. Examples include sugars and starches.
cellular respiration
a process in cells in which oxygen is combined with fuel molecules to release the stored energy in the fuel.
cirrhosis
a condition in the liver in which the cells die, causing the liver to harden.
combustion
a rapid chemical reaction that combines molecules of oxygen with molecules of fuel resulting in the release of energy (light and heat).
chyme
the semifluid mixture of digestive juices and partially digested food in the stomach.
diffusion
the movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
emulsify
breaking up fat into tiny droplets or particles.
enzyme
a protein in cells that affects the rate of chemical reactions.
esophagus
a hollow, muscular tube connecting the pharynx to the stomach.
fats
a food nutrient also known as lipids.
feces or stool
the final waste product of digestion.
gastrointestinal tract
the digestive tube that begins with the mouth and includes the throat, esophagus, stomach, and intestines.
glucose
a simple sugar.
liver
an organ that is a storehouse, a chemical manufacturing plant, and a sewage treatment station.
minerals
an essential nutrient for good health. Minerals are simple chemical elements such as iron that come from the earth.
mucus
a slippery substance secreted by cells for protection.
peristalsis
the process that moves food through the gastrointestinal tract.
protein
a food nutrient composed of amino acids that regulates body functions, builds muscles and bones, makes muscles contract, helps fight illness, transports substances in the blood, and transmits information between cells, as well as other functions.
saliva
a secretion in the mouth that contains an enzyme that breaks down starch into sugar.
stress
a response to your surroundings. The body can show stress in many ways.
vitamin
a chemical the body cannot make for itself but needs in small amounts to help enzymes do their jobs in cells.

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Feb 23, 2012

Sep 10, 2014