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alleles
Different forms of genes. A gene pair is made up of a pair of alleles.
amino acids
The building blocks of proteins.
cells
The building blocks of living organisms that perform the functions of the body needed to keep it functioning.
characteristics
The distinctive qualities of living things.
chromosomes
The cell parts that carry the genes.
cloning
Making copies of a gene by using bacteria.
continuity
The phenomenon of living organisms producing offspring with similar characteristics.
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
The molecule responsible for the inheritance of traits.
diversity
The variation (or difference) among living organisms.
dominant allele
An allele that is always expressed regardless of whether the other allele of its pair is the same or different.
fertilization
The event of an egg cell, ovum, combining with a sperm cell.
gamete cells
The cells used to reproduce.
gene
A segment or a piece of DNA that codes for a specific trait.
gene mapping
The process of determining the location of a gene on a chromosome.
genetic counseling
A profession that is concerned with helping people who may have genetic-related conditions.
genetic engineering
The process of getting genes to produce their proteins in the laboratory.
genetics
The study of the biological causes of continuity and diversity among living things.
genome
All the DNA genes of a species.
genotype
The genetic makeup for a given individual.
heredity
The process of passing on traits and variations from one generation to the next.
heterozygous
Members of a gene pair are different (e.g., Tt).
homozygous
Members of a gene pair are the same (e.g., TT or tt).
karyotype
A portrait of the chromosomes of a cell.
linked genes
Genes close together on the same chromosome and inherited together.
meiosis
The process that produces gamete cells.
mitosis
Cell division in which the nucleus divides, producing two cells each with the same number and exact type of chromosomes as the parent cell.
mRNA
Messenger RNA that moves from the nucleus to the cytoplasm carrying the coded message from the DNA in the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
nucleotides
Four different complex chemical molecules that make up a DNA molecule. The four complex chemical molecules are adenine, guanine, cyostine, and thymine.
nucleus
The part of a cell that contains the genetic information.
ova
Female gamete cells.
pedigree
A family tree that shows relationships among members of a family.
population geneticists
Geneticists who are concerned about how and why some alleles are found in people in certain parts of the world and not others.
protein synthesis
The process of making proteins.
recessive allele
An allele that will only be expressed if the other allele of its pair is the same, also recessive.
replication
The duplication of DNA that occurs just before a cell divides.
ribosomes
Structures where amino acids are joined together to make a protein.
RNA
A molecule very much like DNA, composed of nucleotides in a single-strand molecule rather than a double-stranded helix.
species
A group of living organisms that has similar characteristics and can interbreed (reproduce among themselves).
sperm
Male gamete cells.
trait
A characteristic that can be passed from generation to generation.
tRNA
Transfer RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosomes where protein is assembled.
variation
The characteristics that make members of the same species different from one another. Variations are the different forms of a trait.
X-linked
Genes for these traits are part of the X chromosome, but are not on the Y chromosome. This is because the X chromosome is larger and possesses more genes.
zygote
A fertilized egg.

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