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Chapter 12: Electricity

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12

The Big Idea

Conservation of charge is the fourth of the five conservation laws in physics. There are two types of charge: positive and negative; the law of conservation of electric charge states that the net charge of the universe remains constant. As with momentum and energy, in any closed system charge can be transferred from one body to another and can move within the system but cannot leave the system.

Electromagnetism is associated with charge and is a fundamental force of nature, like gravity (which for us is associated with mass). If charges are static, the only manifestation of electromagnetism is the Coulomb electric force. In the same way the gravitational force that an object exerts upon other objects, and that other objects exert on it, depends on the amount of mass it possesses, the Coulomb electric force that an object experiences depends on the amount of electric charge the object possesses. Like gravity, the Coulomb electric force decreases with the square of the distance. The Coulomb electric force is responsible for many of the forces we discussed previously: the normal force, contact forces such as friction, and so on --- all of these forces arise in the mutual attraction and repulsion of charged particles.

Although the law determining the magnitude of the Coulomb electric force has the same form as the law of gravity, the electric constant is 20 orders of magnitude greater than the gravitational constant. That is why electricity normally dominates gravity at the atomic and molecular level. Since there is only one type of mass but two opposite types of electric charge, gravity will dominate in large bodies unless there is a separation of charge.

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