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5.5: Bibliography

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Aitchison, E. (1996). Methane generation from UK landfill sites and its use as an energy resource. Energy Conversion and Management, 37(6/8):1111–1116. doi: doi:10.1016/0196-8904(95)00306-

1. www.ingentaconnect.com/content/els/01968904/1996/00000037/ 00000006/art00306.

Amos, W. A. (2004). Updated cost analysis of photobiological hydrogen production from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii green algae – milestone completion report. www.nrel.gov/docs/fy04osti/35593. pdf.

Anderson, K., Bows, A., Mander, S., Shackley, S., Agnolucci, P., and Ekins, P. (2006). Decarbonising modern societies: Integrated scenarios process and workshops. Technical Report 48, Tyndall Centre. www.tyndall.ac.uk/research/theme2/final_reports/ t3_24.pdf.

Archer, M. D. and Barber, J. (2004). Photosynthesis and photoconversion. In M. D. Archer and J. Barber, editors, Molecular to Global Photosynthesis. World Scientific. ISBN 978-1-86094-256-3. www.worldscibooks.com/lifesci/p218.html.

Ashworth, W. and Pegg, M. (1986). The history of the British coal industry. Vol. 5, 1946–1982: the nationalized industry. Clarendon, Oxford. ISBN 0198282958.

Asplund, G. (2004). Sustainable energy systems with HVDC transmission. In Power Engineering Society General Meeting, volume 2, pages 2299–2303. IEEE. doi: 10.1109/PES.2004.1373296. www.trec-uk.org.uk/reports/HVDC Gunnar Asplund ABB.pdf.

Asselbergs, B., Bokhorst, J., Harms, R., van Hemert, J., van der Noort, L., ten Velden, C., Vervuurt, R., Wijnen, L., and van Zon, L. (2006). Size does matter – the possibilities of cultivating jatropha curcas for biofuel production in Cambodia. environmental.scum.org/biofuel/jatropha/.

Baer, P. and Mastrandrea, M. (2006). High stakes: Designing emissions pathways to reduce the risk of dangerous climate change. www.ippr.org/publicationsandreports/.

Bahrman, M. P. and Johnson, B. K. (2007). The ABCs of HVDC transmission technology. IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, 5(2).

Baines, J. A., Newman, V. G., Hanna, I. W., Douglas, T. H., Carlyle, W. J., Jones, I. L., Eaton, D. M., and Zeronian, G. (1983). Dinorwig pumped storage scheme. Institution of Civil Engineers Proc. pt. 1, 74:635–718.

Baines, J. A., Newman, V. G., Hanna, I. W., Douglas, T. H., Carlyle, W. J., Jones, I. L., Eaton, D. M., and Zeronian, G. (1986). Dinorwig pumped storage scheme. Institution of Civil Engineers Proc. pt. 1, 80:493–536.

Baker, C., Walbancke, J., and Leach, P. (2006). Tidal lagoon power generation scheme in Swansea Bay. www.dti.gov.uk/files/ file30617.pdf. A report on behalf of the Dept. of Trade and Industry and the Welsh Development Agency

Bayer Crop Science. (2003). Potential of GM winter oilseed rape to reduce the environmental impact of farming whilst improving farmer incomes. tinyurl.com/5j99df.

Bickley, D. T. and Ryrie, S. C. (1982). A two-basin tidal power scheme for the Severn estuary. In Conf. on new approaches to tidal power.

Binder, M., Faltenbacher, M., Kentzler, M., and Schuckert, M. (2006). Clean urban transport for Europe. deliverable D8 final report. www.fuel-cell-bus-club.com/.

Black and Veatch. (2005). The UK tidal stream resource and tidal stream technology. report prepared for the Carbon Trust Marine Energy Challenge. www.carbontrust.co.uk/technology/technologyaccelerator/tidal stream.htm.

Blunden, L. S. and Bahaj, A. S. (2007). Tidal energy resource assessment for tidal stream generators. Proc. IMechE, 221 Part A: 137–146.

Bonan, G. B. (2002). Ecological Climatology: Concepts and Applications. Cambridge Univ. Press. ISBN 9780521804769.

Boyer, J. S. (1982). Plant productivity and environment. Science, 218 (4571):443–448. doi: 10.1126/science.218.4571.443.

Braslow, A. L. (1999). A history of suction-type laminar-flow control with emphasis on flight research. Number 13 in Monographs in Aerospace History. NASA. www.nasa.gov/centers/dryden/pdf/ 88792main Laminar.pdf.

Broecker, W. S. and Kunzig, R. (2008). Fixing Climate: What Past Climate Changes Reveal About the Current Threat–and How to Counter It. Hill and Wang. ISBN 0809045028.

Burnham, A., Wang, M., and Wu, Y. (2007). Development and applications of GREET 2.7 — the transportation vehicle-cycle model. www.transportation.anl.gov/software/GREET/publications.html.

Carbon Trust. (2007). Micro-CHP accelerator – interim report. Technical Report CTC726. www.carbontrust.co.uk/publications/ publicationdetail.htm?productid=CTC726.

Carlsson, L. (2002). “Classical” HVDC: still continuing to evolve. Modern Power Systems.

Cartwright, D. E., Edden, A. C., Spencer, R., and Vassie, J. M. (1980). The tides of the northeast Atlantic Ocean. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A, 298(1436):87–139.

Catling, D. T. (1966). Principles and practice of train performance applied to London Transport’s Victoria line. Paper 8, Convention on Guided Land Transport (London, 27-28 October 1966).

Charlier, R. H. (2003a). Sustainable co-generation from the tides: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 7:187213.

Charlier, R. H. (2003b). A “sleeper” awakes: tidal current power. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 7:515529.

Charney, J. G., Arakawa, A., Baker, D. J., Bolin, B., Dickinson, R. E., Goody, R. M., Leith, C. E., Stommel, H. M., and Wunsch, C. I. (1979). Carbon dioxide and climate: A scientific assessment. www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record id=12181.

Chisholm, S. W., Falkowski, P. G., and Cullen, J. J. (2001). Discrediting ocean fertilisation. Science, 294(5541):309–310.

Chitrakar, R., Kanoh, H., Miyai, Y., and Ooi, K. (2001). Recovery of lithium from seawater using manganese oxide adsorbent (H_{1.6}Mn_{1.6}O_4) derived from Li_{1.6}Mn_{1.6}O_4. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 40(9):2054–2058. pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi/iecred/2001/ 40/i09/abs/ie000911h.html.

Church, R. A., Hall, A., and Kanefsky, J. (1986). The history of the British coal industry. Vol. 3, 1830–1913: Victorian pre-eminence. Clarendon, Oxford. ISBN 0198282842.

Cohen, B. L. (1983). Breeder reactors: A renewable energy source. American Journal of Physics, 51(1):75–76. sustainablenuclear.org/PADs/pad11983cohen.pdf.

Coley, D. (2001). Emission factors for walking and cycling. www. centres.ex.ac.uk/cee/publications/reports/91.html.

Committee on Radioactive Waste Management. (2006). Managing our radioactive waste safely. www.corwm.org.uk/Pages/Current%20Publications/700%20-%20CoRWM%20July%202006% 20Recommendations%20to%20Government.pdf.

CUTE. (2006). Clean urban transport for Europe. detailed summary of achievements. www.fuel-cell-bus-club.com/.

David, J. and Herzog, H. (2000). The cost of carbon capture. sequestration.mit.edu/pdf/David and Herzog.pdf. presented at the Fifth International Conf. on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, Cairns, Australia, August 13 - August 16 (2000).

Davidson, E. A. and Janssens, I. A. (2006). Temperature sensitivity of soil carbon decomposition and feedbacks to climate change. Nature, 440:165–173. doi: doi:10.1038/nature04514. www.nature.com/nature/journal/v440/n7081/full/nature04514.html.

Deffeyes, K. S. and MacGregor, I. D. (1980). World uranium resources. Scientific American, pages 66–76.

Denholm, P., Kulcinski, G. L., and Holloway, T. (2005). Emissions and energy efficiency assessment of baseload wind energy systems. Environ Sci Technol, 39(6):1903–1911. ISSN 0013- 936X. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db= pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list uids=15819254.

Denison, R. A. (1997). Life-cycle assessment for paper products. In E. Ellwood, J. Antle, G. Eyring, and P. Schulze, editors, Wood in Our Future: The Role of Life-Cycle Analysis: Proc. a Symposium. National Academy Press. ISBN 0309057450. books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record id=5734.

Dennis, C. (2006). Solar energy: Radiation nation. Nature, 443:23–24.doi: 10.1038/443023a.

Dept. for Transport. (2007). Transport statistics Great Britain. www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/statistics/datatablespublications/tsgb/.

Dept. of Defense. (2008). More fight – less fuel. Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on DoD Energy Strategy.

Dept. of Trade and Industry. (2004). DTI Atlas of UK marine renewable energy resources. www.offshore-sea.org.uk/.

Dept. of Trade and Industry. (2002a). Energy consumption in the United Kingdom. www.berr.gov.uk/files/file11250.pdf.

Dept. of Trade and Industry. (2002b). Future offshore. www.berr. gov.uk/files/file22791.pdf.

Dept. of Trade and Industry. (2007). Impact of banding the renewables obligation – costs of electricity production. www.berr.gov.uk/files/file39038.pdf.

Dessler, A. E. and Parson, E. A. (2006). The Science and Politics of Global Climate Change – A Guide to the Debate. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge. ISBN 9780521539418.

di Prampero, P. E., Cortili, G., Mognoni, P., and Saibene, F. (1979). Equation of motion of a cyclist. J. Appl. Physiology, 47:201–206. jap.physiology.org/cgi/content/abstract/47/1/201.

Diamond, J. (2004). Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed. Penguin.

E4tech. (2007). A review of the UK innovation system for low carbon road transport technologies. www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/scienceresearch/ technology/lctis/e4techlcpdf.

Eckhartt, D. (1995). Nuclear fuels for low-beta fusion reactors: Lithium resources revisited. Journal of Fusion Energy, 14(4):329–341. ISSN 0164-0313 (Print) 1572-9591 (Online). doi: 10.1007/BF02214511. www.springerlink.com/content/35470543rj8t2gk1/.

Eddington, R. (2006). Transport’s role in sustaining the UK’s productivity and competitiveness.

Eden, R. and Bending, R. (1985). Gas/electricity competition in the UK. Technical Report 85/6, Cambridge Energy Research Group, Cambridge.

Elliott, D. L., Wendell, L. L., and Gower, G. L. (1991). An assessment of windy land area and wind energy potential in the contiguous United States. www.osti.gov/energycitations/servlets/ purl/5252760-ccuOpk/.

Energy for Sustainable Development Ltd. (2003). English partnerships sustainable energy review. www.englishpartnerships.co. uk.

Erdincler, A. U. and Vesilind, P. A. (1993). Energy recovery from mixed waste paper. Waste Management & Research, 11(6):507–513. doi: 10.1177/0734242X9301100605.

Etheridge, D., Steele, L., Langenfelds, R., Francey, R., Barnola, J.-M., and Morgan, V. (1998). Historical CO_2 records from the Law Dome DE08, DE08-2, and DSS ice cores. In Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, US Dept. of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tenn., USA.cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/co2/lawdome.html.

European Commission. (2007). Concentrating solar power - from research to implementation. www.solarpaces.org/Library/library. htm.

Evans, D. G. (2007). Liquid transport biofuels – technology status report. www.nnfcc.co.uk/.

Evans, R. K. (2008). An abundance of lithium. www.worldlithium.com.

Faber, T. E. (1995). Fluid dynamics for physicists. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge.

Faiman, D., Raviv, D., and Rosenstreich, R. (2007). Using solar energy to arrest the increasing rate of fossil-fuel consumption: The southwestern states of the USA as case studies. Energy Policy, 35:567576.

Fies, B., Peterson, T., and Powicki, C. (2007). Solar photovoltaics – expanding electric generation options. mydocs.epri.com/docs/SEIG/1016279 Photovoltaic White Paper 1207.pdf.

Fisher, K., Wallén, E., Laenen, P. P., and Collins, M. (2006). Battery waste management life cycle assessment. www.defra.gov.uk/ environment/waste/topics/batteries/pdf/erm-lcareport0610.pdf.

Flather, R. A. (1976). A tidal model of the north-west European continental shelf. Memoires Société Royale des Sciences de Liège, 10(6):141–164.

Flinn, M. W. and Stoker, D. (1984). The history of the British coal industry. Vol. 2, 1700–1830: the Industrial Revolution. Clarendon, Oxford. ISBN 0198282834.

Francis, G., Edinger, R., and Becker, K. (2005). A concept for simultaneous wasteland reclamation, fuel production, and socioeconomic development in degraded areas in India: Need, potential and perspectives of Jatropha plantations. Natural Resources Forum, 29(1):12–24. doi:10.1111/j.1477-8947.2005.00109.x.

Franklin, J. (2007). Principles of cycle planning. www.cyclenetwork.org.uk/papers/071119principles.pdf.

Freeston, D. H. (1996). Direct uses of geothermal energy 1995. geoheat.oit.edu/bulletin/bull17-1/art1.pdf.

Gabrielli, G. and von Kármán, T. (1950). What price speed? Mechanical Engineering, 72(10).

Garrett, C. and Cummins, P. (2005). The power potential of tidal currents in channels. Proc. Royal Society A, 461(2060):2563–2572.dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspa.2005.1494.

Garrett, C. and Cummins, P. (2007). The efficiency of a turbine in a tidal channel. J Fluid Mech, 588:243–251. journals.cambridge.org/production/action/cjoGetFulltext?fulltextid=1346064.

Gellings, C. W. and Parmenter, K. E. (2004). Energy efficiency in fertilizer production and use. In C. W. Gellings and K. Blok, editors, Efficient Use and Conservation of Energy, Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems. Eolss Publishers, Oxford, UK. www.eolss.net.

German Aerospace Center (DLR) Institute of Technical Thermodynamics Section Systems Analysis and Technology Assessment. (2006). Concentrating solar power for the Mediterranean region. www.dlr.de/tt/med-csp. Study commissioned by Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Germany.

Goodstein, D. (2004). Out of Gas. W. W. Norton and Company, New York. ISBN 0393058573.

Green, J. E. (2006). Civil aviation and the environment – the next frontier for the aerodynamicist. Aeronautical Journal, 110(1110): 469–486.

Grubb, M. and Newbery, D. (2008). Pricing carbon for electricity generation: national and international dimensions. In M. Grubb, T. Jamasb, and M. G. Pollitt, editors, Delivering a Low Carbon Electricity System: Technologies, Economics and Policy. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge.

Gummer, J., Goldsmith, Z., Peck, J., Eggar, T., Hurd, N., Miraj, A., Norris, S., Northcote, B., Oliver, T., Strong, D., Twitchen, K., and Wilkie, K. (2007). Blueprint for a green economy. www.qualityoflifechallenge.com.

Halkema, J. A. (2006). Wind energy: Facts and fiction. www.countryguardian.net/halkema-windenergyfactfiction.pdf.

Hammond, G. and Jones, C. (2006). Inventory of carbon & energy (ICE). www.bath.ac.uk/mech-eng/sert/embodied/. version 1.5a Beta.

Hammons, T. J. (1993). Tidal power. Proc. IEEE, 8(3):419–433.

Hansen, J., Sato, M., Kharecha, P., Russell, G., Lea, D., and Siddall, M. (2007). Climate change and trace gases. Phil. Trans. Royal. Soc. A, 365:1925–1954. doi: 10.1098/rsta.2007.2052. pubs.giss.nasa.gov/abstracts/2007/Hansen etal 2.html.

Hastings, R. and Wall, M. (2006). Sustainable Solar Housing: Strategies And Solutions. Earthscan. ISBN 1844073254.

Hatcher, J. (1993). The History of the British Coal Industry: Towards the Age of Coal: Before 1700 Vol 1. Clarendon Press.

Heaton, E., Voigt, T., and Long, S. (2004). A quantitative review comparing the yields of two candidate C4 perennial biomass crops in relation to nitrogen, temperature, and water. Biomass and Bioenergy, 27:21–30.

Helm, D., Smale, R., and Phillips, J. (2007). Too good to be true? The UK’s climate change record. www.dieterhelm.co.uk/ publications/Carbon record 2007.pdf.

Helweg-Larsen, T. and Bull, J. (2007). Zero carbon Britain – an alternative energy strategy. zerocarbonbritain.com/.

Herring, J. (2004). Uranium and thorium resource assessment. In C. J. Cleveland, editor, Encyclopedia of Energy. Boston Univ., Boston, USA. ISBN 0-12-176480-X.

Herzog, H. (2003). Assessing the feasibility of capturing CO_2 from the air. web.mit.edu/coal/working folder/pdfs/Air Capture Feasibility.pdf.

Herzog, H. (2001). What future for carbon capture and sequestration? Environmental Science and Technology, 35:148A–153A. sequestration.mit.edu/.

Hird, V., Emerson, C., Noble, E., Longfield, J., Williams, V., Goetz, D., Hoskins, R., Paxton, A., and Dupee, G. (1999). Still on the road to ruin? An assessment of the debate over the unnecessary transport of food, five years on from the food miles report.

Hodgson, P. (1999). Nuclear Power, Energy and the Environment. Imperial College Press.

Hopfield, J. J. and Gollub, J. (1978). Introduction to solar energy. www.inference.phy.cam.ac.uk/sustainable/solar/HopfieldGollub78/scan.html.

Horie, H., Tanjo, Y., Miyamoto, T., and Koga, Y. (1997). Development of a lithium-ion battery pack system for EV. JSAE Review, 18 (3):295–300.

HPTCJ. (2007). Heat pumps: Long awaited way out of the global warming. www.hptcj.or.jp/about e/contribution/index.html.

Indermuhle, A., Stocker, T., Joos, F., Fischer, H., Smith, H., Wahlen, M., Deck, B., Mastroianni, D., Tschumi, J., Blunier, T., Meyer, R., and Stauffer, B. (1999). Holocene carbon-cycle dynamics based on CO_2 trapped in ice at Taylor Dome, Antarctica. Nature, 398:121–126.

International Energy Agency. (2001). Things that go blip in the night – standby power and how to limit it. www.iea.org/textbase/nppdf/free/2000/blipinthenight01.pdf.

Jackson, P. and Kershaw, S. (1996). Reducing long term methane emissions resulting from coal mining. Energy Conversion and Management, 37(6-8):801–806. doi: 10.1016/0196-8904(95)00259-6.

Jevons, W. S. (1866). The Coal Question; An Inquiry concerning the Progress of the Nation, and the Probable Exhaustion of our Coal-mines. Macmillan and Co., London, second edition. oll.libertyfund. org/.

Jones, I. S. F. (2008). The production of additional marine protein by nitrogen nourishment. www.oceannourishment.com/files/Jc08.pdf.

Jones, P. M. S. (1984). Statistics and nuclear energy. The Statistician, 33(1):91–102. www.jstor.org/pss/2987717.

Judd, B., Harrison, D. P., and Jones, I. S. F. (2008). Engineering ocean nourishment. In World Congress on Engineering WCE 2008, pages 1315–1319. IAENG. ISBN 978-988-98671-9-5.

Juniper, T. (2007). How Many Lightbulbs does it take To Change a Planet? Quercus, London.

Kammen, D. M. and Hassenzahl, D. M. (1999). Should We Risk It? Exploring Environmental, Health, and Technological Problem Solving. Princeton Univ. Press.

Kaneko, T., Shimada,M., Kujiraoka, S., and Kojima, T. (2004). Easy maintenance and environmentally-friendly train traction system. Hitachi Review, 53(1):15–19. www.hitachi.com/ICSFiles/afieldfile/2004/05/25/r2004 01 103.pdf.

Keeling, C. and Whorf, T. (2005). Atmospheric CO_2 records from sites in the SIO air sampling network. In Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, US Dept. of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tenn., USA.

Keith, D. W., Ha-Duong, M., and Stolaroff, J. K. (2005). Climate strategy with CO_2 capture from the air. Climatic Change. doi: 10.1007/s10584-005-9026-x. www.ucalgary.ca/∼keith/papers/ 51.Keith.2005.ClimateStratWithAirCapture.e.pdf.

King, J. (2007). The King review of low-carbon cars. Part I: the potential for CO_2 reduction. hm-treasury.gov.uk/king.

King, J. (2008). The King review of low-carbon cars. Part II: recommendations for action. hm-treasury.gov.uk/king.

Koomey, J. G. (2007). Estimating total power consumption by servers in the US and the world. blogs.business2.com/greenwombat/files/ serverpowerusecomplete-v3.pdf.

Kowalik, Z. (2004). Tide distribution and tapping into tidal energy. Oceanologia, 46(3):291–331.

Kuehr, R. (2003). Computers and the Environment: Understanding and Managing their Impacts (Eco-Efficiency in Industry and Science). Springer. ISBN 1402016808.

Lackner, K. S., Grimes, P., and Ziock, H.-J. (2001). Capturing carbon dioxide from air. www.netl.doe.gov/publications/proceedings/01/carbon seq/7b1.pdf. Presented at First National Conf. on Carbon Sequestration, Washington DC.

Lawson, B. (1996). Building materials, energy and the environment: Towards ecologically sustainable development.

Layzell, D. B., Stephen, J., and Wood, S. M. (2006). Exploring the potential for biomass power in Ontario. www.biocap.ca/files/Ont bioenergy OPA Feb23 final.pdf.

Le Quéré, C., Rödenbeck, C., Buitenhuis, E., Conway, T. J., Langenfelds, R., Gomez, A., Labuschagne, C., Ramonet, M., Nakazawa, T., Metzl, N., Gillett, N., and Heimann, M. (2007). Saturation of the southern ocean CO_2 sink due to recent climate change. Science, 316:1735–1738. doi: 10.1126/science.1136188. lgmacweb.env.uea.ac.uk/e415/publications.html.

Lemofouet-Gatsi, S. (2006). Investigation and optimisation of hybrid electricity storage systems based on compressed air and supercapacitors. PhD thesis, EPFL. library.epfl.ch/theses/?nr=3628.

Lemofouet-Gatsi, S. and Rufer, A. (2005). Hybrid energy systems based on compressed air and supercapacitors with maximum efficiency point tracking. leiwww.epfl.ch/publications/lemofouet rufer epe 05.pdf.

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MacKay, D. J. C. (2007b). Under-estimation of the UK tidal resource. www.inference.phy.cam.ac.uk/mackay/abstracts/TideEstimate.html.

MacLeay, I., Harris, K., and Michaels, C. (2007). Digest of United Kingdom energy statistics 2007. www.berr.gov.uk.

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (2006). The future of geothermal energy. geothermal.inel.gov/publications/future of geothermal energy.pdf.

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B. Metz, O. Davidson, H. de Coninck, M. Loos, and L. Meyer, editors. (2005). Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge. ISBN 978-0-521-68551-1. www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/srccs.htm.

Mills, D. R. and Lièvre, P. L. (2004). Competitive solar electricity. www.ausra.com/pdfs/Paper CompetitiveSolarElectricity.pdf.

Mills, D. R. and Morgan, R. G. (2008). Solar thermal electricity as the primary replacement for coal and oil in US generation and transportation. www.ausra.com/technology/reports.html.

Mills, D. R. and Morrison, G. L. (2000). Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector solar thermal powerplants. Solar Energy, 68(3):263–283. doi: 10.1016/S0038-092X(99)00068-7.

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Sustainable Energy – without the hot air

David JC MacKay

About the author

David MacKay is a Professor in the Department of Physics at the University of Cambridge. He studied Natural Sciences at Cambridge and then obtained his PhD in Computation and Neural Systems at the California Institute of Technology. He returned to Cambridge as a Royal Society research fellow at Darwin College. He is internationally known for his research in machine learning, information theory, and communication systems, including the invention of Dasher, a software interface that enables efficient communication in any language with any muscle. He has taught Physics in Cambridge since 1995. Since 2005, he has devoted much of his time to public teaching about energy. He is a member of the World Economic Forum Global Agenda Council on Climate Change.

1 kWh/d the same as \frac{1}{24} kW

GW often used for ‘capacity’ (peak output)

TWh/y often used for average output

1 Mtoe ‘one million tons of oil equivalent’

“UK” = 60 million people

USA energy consumption: 250 kWh/d per person

Europe energy consumption: 125 kWh/d per person

The most commonly used units in public documents discussing power options are:

terawatt-hours per year (TWh/y).

gigawatts (GW).

million tons of oil equivalent per year (Mtoe/y).

1000 TWh/y per United Kingdom is roughly equal to 45 kWh/d per person.

2.5 GW per UK is 1 kWh/d per person.

2 Mtoe/y per UK is roughly 1 kWh/d per person.

kWh chemical energy exchange rate:

1 \ kWh \leftrightarrow 250 g \ \text{of} \ CO_2 \ \text{(oil, petrol)} \ \text{(for gas,} \ 1 \ kWh \leftrightarrow 200 g)

kWh(e) electrical energy is more costly:

1 \ kWh(e) \leftrightarrow 445 g \ \text{of} \ CO_2 \ \text{(gas) (Coal costs twice as much} \ CO_2)

tCO_2 ton of CO_2

MtC million tons of carbon

“UK” = 60 million people

“World” = 6 billion people

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