During the winter of 1691-92, girls in the Salem Village, Massachusetts began complaining of a strange illness. They described feeling sharp pains and the sensation of being choked. The first girl to feel the effects was Betty Parris, daughter of Salem’s minister, Samuel Parris. The second was his niece, Abigail Williams. Reverend Parris believed the sickness was the result of witchcraft.
The girls accused three women of being witches, including the Parris family’s Indian slave, Tituba. Tituba confessed to being a witch and accused more women. The parade of accusations continued until 20 women had been convicted of witchcraft and executed, and 100 more were in prison. Why did the girls make these accusations, and why did so many people believe them? The documents below provide clues to Salemites’ beliefs about witchcraft and about the context in which the events took place.
Discourse on Witchcraft – Cotton Mather
Source: Excerpt from a 1688 speech by Cotton Mather, a leader of the Puritans. Mather argues for the existence of witchcraft.
I will prove that Witchcraft exists. Those who deny it exists argue that they never saw any witches, therefore there are none. That would be as if you or I said: We never met any robbers, therefore there are none.
I have two pieces of evidence that witchcraft exists: First, the Scripture mentions witchcraft. Secondly, many people have experienced the horrors of witchcraft.
Witchcraft is a most monstrous and horrid evil. Witchcraft denies all that is Holy, and Just and Good. Witchcraft is siding with Hell against Heaven and Earth.
Sourcing: Who wrote this document? When? What was his perspective?
Close Reading: Judging from this document, why might the people of Salem have believed the girls’ accusations?
Testimony of Abigail Hobbs
Source: The testimony of a teenager accused of witchcraft, Abigail Hobbs, on April 19, 1692.
Judge: Abigail Hobbs, you are brought before Authority to answer to various acts of witchcraft. What say you? Are you guilty, or not? Speak the truth.
Abigail Hobbs: I will speak the truth. I have seen sights and been scared. I have been very wicked. I hope I shall be better, if God will help me.
Judge: What sights did you see?
Abigail Hobbs: I have seen the Devil.
Judge: How often, many times?
Abigail Hobbs: But once.
Judge: What would he have you do?
Abigail Hobbs: Why, he would have me be a witch.
Judge: Would he have you make a covenant with him?
Abigail Hobbs: Yes.
Sourcing: Who wrote this document? When?
Close Reading: According to this document, why did the people of Salem believe the girls’ accusations?