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Stoichiometry is how a chemist is able to keep track of the chemicals being used in a reaction. This enables them to be able to know how much of each chemical is being consumed, how much is needed, and what the limiting reagent is.
An example: If a hypothetical salad was to be made of:
1 bag of lettuce(L), 4 carrots(C), 1 cup almonds(A), 3 tomatoes(T), and 2 avocado (Av).
Then this would be the equation for this salad:
L 4C A 3T 2Av LC4AT3Av2.
That is the equation only for one (large) salad. However, you are making salad for your school reunion and need 3 of these (large) salads. How many bags of lettuce, and how many carrots will you need? What conversion factors will you use? Lastly, is 5 tomatoes enough?
For the explanation of how to go about the questions and a better understanding of everyday stoichiometry, click here.