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# Substitution Reactions

## A chemical reaction where one functional group in a chemical compound is replaced by another functional group.

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Out with the Old, In with the New

### Out with the Old, In with the New

Credit: Ken Zirkel
Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/40472720@N00/8161123197

Voting is one of the privileges that U.S. citizens have. By casting a ballot, people can express their opinion about a government policy or an elected official. Whether it is a local election for city council, a referendum about a specific piece of legislation, or a national vote, letting your government know what you think is an important responsibility.

#### Why It Matters

• Two major types of reactions in organic chemistry are the substitution reaction and the addition reaction. Both are designed to change the structure of a molecule, but in different ways. The substitution reaction removes one part of the molecule and replaces it with another. When a benzene ring reacts with an alkyl group, the alkyl chain substitutes for the hydrogen on the ring. Alternatively, the addition of hydrogen across a double bond does not displace anything, but simply adds atoms to the already existing molecule.
• Elections for government office operate in much the same way. Assume that two candidates are competing for the same office. One is the incumbent, having already held the office. The other candidate would like to be elected in place of the incumbent. If the incumbent wins the election, no change takes place and we would write on our answer sheet N.R. for “No Reaction”. However, if the incumbent is defeated, then the newly elected person is substituted for the one who did not win.
• Credit: Johannes Adam Simon Oertel

Compared to a peaceful election, a revolution is a more violent and chaotic reaction. During the American revolution, the entire government was changed. The king was replaced with elected officials [Figure2]

• The addition reaction involves another set of circumstances. Many elected positions are based on population. There may be a fixed number of seats (the U.S. House of Representatives currently has 435 seats allotted to it). As the population of a state increases, more representatives may be designated from that state. An election may be held, with the winner being added to the number of representatives from that state.
• Watch an enjoyable video as a British narrator explains the U.S. election system: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uRu_JcarCDY

#### Can You Apply It?

1. What is ethylbenzene used for?
2. How is hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids accomplished?
3. Why is hydrogenation of unsaturated fats carried out?
4. What amendment allowed the Senate members to be elected by popular vote of the people?
5. What amendment set the minimum voting age at 18?

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