<img src="https://d5nxst8fruw4z.cloudfront.net/atrk.gif?account=iA1Pi1a8Dy00ym" style="display:none" height="1" width="1" alt="" />

# Temperature and Temperature Scales

## Measure of particle movement within matter.

Estimated6 minsto complete
%
Progress
Practice Temperature and Temperature Scales

MEMORY METER
This indicates how strong in your memory this concept is
Progress
Estimated6 minsto complete
%
When Lightning Strikes

### When Lighting Strikes

Credit: C. Clark
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cloud-to-ground_lightning2_-_NOAA.jpg

The ancient Greek deity Zeus was said to control lightning. Benjamin Franklin carried out experiments involving lightning to demonstrate that it was electricity. Many modern buildings have built-in protection against lightning strikes. Scientists study lightning, but there is still much we do not understand about this beautiful but dangerous phenomenon.

#### Amazing But True

• Lightning is a result of charge separation between positive and negative ice particles in a thunderstorm. The smaller and lighter particles become positive and rise above the larger and heavier negative particles. A strong electrical potential builds up within the cloud and between the cloud and the ground.
• When the electrical discharge occurs, the air in the vicinity is heated – often temperatures of over 20,000oC can be created. This heated air produces a shock wave which produces sound. Sound travels much more slowly (about 1100 feet or one-fifth mile) in a second while light speeds along at 186,000 miles/second. By counting the number of seconds between flash and sound and dividing by five, you can get a rough estimation of the miles between you and the lightning bolt (the further away the better).
• Credit: zmmrc
Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/12085460@N02/2424703125/

Lightning discharges can occur between clouds without striking the ground. This is known as inter-cloud lightning [Figure2]

• Lightning can emit a wide range of electromagnetic phenomena. We see light due to excited electrons dropping back down to lower energy levels. However, there are also X-rays, radio waves, and gamma emissions produced during lightning strikes.
• Watch the video to see the formation of a lightning bolt:

#### Show What You Know

1. List three different types of lightning.
2. You see a lightning flash and hear the thunder ten seconds later.  Approximately how far are you from the lightning flash?
3. Which part of a cloud is more likely to be positively charged?
4. What percentage of lightning strikes are cloud-to-cloud?
5. What temperature can be generated by an atomic bomb?

### Notes/Highlights Having trouble? Report an issue.

Color Highlighted Text Notes