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Titration Calculations

Calculations used to determine analyte concentrations in titration experiments.

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Titrations

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Titration Experiment

The equivalence point is the point in a neutralization reaction where the number of moles of hydrogen ions is equal to the number of moles of hydroxide ions. Given the following equation, how many moles of HCl would be required to neutralize one mole of Ba(OH)2?

\begin{align*}2\text{HCl}(aq)+\text{Ba}(\text{OH})_2(aq) \rightarrow \text{BaCl}_2(aq)+2\text{H}_2\text{O}(l)\end{align*}

By performing a controlled neutralization reaction, we can determine an unknown concentration of an acid or a base. A titration is an experiment where a volume of a solution of a known concentration is aded to a volume of another solution to determine its concentration. Many of these are acid-base titrations!

An indicator is a substance that has a distinctly different color when in an acidic or basic solution. Why do we use indicators in an acid-base titration? What is a common indicator used in strong acid-strong base titrations?

There are 4 major steps in titrations. What are these steps? Why is it important to add the solution from the buret slowly?

The standard solution is the solution in a titration whose concentration is known.

The end point of a titration is the point at which the indicator changes color.

Titration Calculations

At the equivalence point in a neutralization, the moles of acid are equal to the moles of base! Because the molarity (M) of a solution is the moles of solute divided by the liters (V) of solution, we can set the moles of acid equal to moles of base, as follows:

\begin{align*}M_A \times V_A=M_B \times V_B\end{align*}

Using the above equation, we can solve for one of the variables if we know the other three. If a titration is performed and 20.90 mL of 0.600 M NaOH is required to reach the end point when titration with 16.00 mL of HCl of unknown concentration, what is the concentration of HCl?

Titration Curves

A titration curve is a graphical representation of the pH of a solution during a titration. The following graphs are both examples of strong acid-strong base titration curves:

In which of the above graphs is acid being added to a base? Where is the equivalence point, and why would the equivalence point be at that pH reading?

With weak acid-strong base or strong acid-weak base titrations, the general shape of the curve is the same. What changes?