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Triglycerides

Summarizes the structure and synthesis of this specific lipid as well as their role in metabolism.

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Triglycerides

Photograph of supplemental pills

Credit: Flickr:Sam_Catch
Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/samcatchesides/5419724548/
License: CC BY-NC 3.0

Eat right or take a supplement?

There is a lot of interest these days on healthy diets and as well as concerns about heart problems. There is also a strong market for the sales of omega-3 fatty acids, which are said to help lower fat levels in blood. But too many people rely on the supplements to help their hearts and don’t understand the chemistry behind it all. Yes, taking omega-3 fatty acids will give you some of the fatty acids your body requires. No, this is not a substitute for eating a healthy diet and exercising. You can’t sit in front of the TV set, eating your large pizza, and expect these pills to keep you healthy. You’ve got to do things the hard way – eat your vegetables and get some exercise. Yes, mother.

Triglycerides

A lipid is a member of a class of water-insoluble compounds that includes oils, fats, and waxes. Oils and fats are based on the same general structure, but fats are solids at room temperature, while oils are liquids. Butter is an example of a fat and is derived from animals. Some oils include olive oil and canola oil, which are obtained from plants. Lipids are an essential part of a healthy diet, though excess dietary fat can be harmful. Lipids store energy in the body and are also needed to keep cell membranes healthy.

One type of lipid is called a triglyceride, an ester derived from glycerol combined with three fatty acid molecules.

Structure of a triglyceride

Credit: CK-12 Foundation - Joy Sheng
License: CC BY-NC 3.0

Triglyceride components[Figure2]

Glycerol is a triol, an alcohol which contains three hydroxyl functional groups. A fatty acid is a long carbon chain, generally from 12 to 24 carbons in length, with an attached carboxyl group. Each of the three fatty acid molecules undergoes an esterification with one of the hydroxyl groups of the glycerol molecule. The result is a large triester molecule referred to as a triglyceride.

Triglycerides function as a long-term storage form of energy in the human body. Because of the long carbon chains, triglycerides are nearly nonpolar molecules and thus do not dissolve readily in polar solvents such as water. Instead, oils and fats are soluble in nonpolar organic solvents such as hexane and ethers.

Fats may be either saturated or unsaturated. A saturated fat is a fat that consists of triglycerides whose carbon chains consist entirely of carbon-carbon single bonds. Therefore, the carbon chains are saturated with the maximum number of hydrogen atoms possible. An unsaturated fat is a fat that consists of triglycerides whose carbon chains contain one or more carbon-carbon double bonds. A fat with one double bond is called monounsaturated, while a fat with multiple double bonds is called polyunsaturated (see Figure below). 

Example structures of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids

Credit: Wolfgang Schaefer (Wikimedia: WS62)
Source: Palmitic: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Palmitic_acid_shorthand_formula.PNG; Oleic: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Oleic_acid_shorthand_formula.PNG; Linoleic: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Linoleic_acid_shorthand_formula.PNG
License: CC BY-NC 3.0

Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids[Figure3]

Unsaturated fat is generally considered to be healthier because it contains fewer calories than an equivalent amount of saturated fat. Additionally, high consumption of saturated fats is linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Some examples of foods with high concentrations of saturated fats include butter, cheese, lard, and some fatty meats. Foods with higher concentrations of unsaturated fats include nuts, avocado, and vegetable oils such as canola oil and olive oil. Figure below shows the percentages of fat types in some common foods.

Proportion of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fats in common foods

Credit: CK-12 Foundation, using data from the US Department of Agriculture and the National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference
Source: Data: http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/
License: CC BY-NC 3.0

Some common foods and oils along with their percentages of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fats.[Figure4]

 

 

Review

  1. What is a fatty acid?
  2. What is a triglyceride?
  3. Why are unsaturated fatty acids important?

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Image Attributions

  1. [1]^ Credit: Flickr:Sam_Catch; Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/samcatchesides/5419724548/; License: CC BY-NC 3.0
  2. [2]^ Credit: CK-12 Foundation - Joy Sheng; License: CC BY-NC 3.0
  3. [3]^ Credit: Wolfgang Schaefer (Wikimedia: WS62); Source: Palmitic: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Palmitic_acid_shorthand_formula.PNG; Oleic: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Oleic_acid_shorthand_formula.PNG; Linoleic: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Linoleic_acid_shorthand_formula.PNG; License: CC BY-NC 3.0
  4. [4]^ Credit: CK-12 Foundation, using data from the US Department of Agriculture and the National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference; Source: Data: http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/; License: CC BY-NC 3.0

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