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Heat Transfer in the Atmosphere

In the atmosphere, heat is transferred by radiation, conduction and convection.

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Wonderful Water

Wonderful Water

Credit: paul bica
Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/99771506@N00/5747367650
License: CC BY-NC 3.0

Water is everywhere: in the ocean, in ponds and rivers, falling as rainfall and dripping from your tap. We should all appreciate water since we need it to live. Water also has some remarkable properties.

Why It Matters

Lots of people don’t have enough potable water to meet their needs. In fact, one billion people don’t have enough clean water. We don’t know everything about water. Like everyone else, you might have a hard time explaining the Mpemba Effect. It’s so counterintuitive; people still have a hard time believing that it even happens. Maybe it doesn’t happen.

Credit: Glglgl
Source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mpemba-simple.svg
License: CC BY-NC 3.0

In some cases, it takes less time for hot water (red line) than for cold water (blue line) to freeze [Figure2]

Explore More

With the link below, learn more about water. Then answer the following questions.

  1. Why should cold water freeze more rapidly than warm water?
  2. How does convection explain the Mpemba Effect?
  3. Sometimes the Mpemba Effect seems to work and sometimes it doesn’t. What do you need to do if you’re going to do an experiment to test the effect?
  4. How many people on Earth do not have potable water?

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Image Attributions

  1. [1]^ Credit: paul bica; Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/99771506@N00/5747367650; License: CC BY-NC 3.0
  2. [2]^ Credit: Glglgl; Source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mpemba-simple.svg; License: CC BY-NC 3.0

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