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Short-Term Climate Change

El Niño and La Niña represent different conditions in and over the Pacific Ocean; they create unusual weather conditions worldwide.

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Short-Term Climate Change

Why is El Niño important to a discussion on climate change?

In 1973 a severe El Niño shut off upwelling off of South America, resulting in the collapse of the anchovetta fishery. Without small fish to eat, larger marine organisms died off. Since then, severe El Niño events have become more frequent.

El Niño Southern Oscillation

Short-term changes in climate are common and they have many causes (Figure below). The largest and most important of these is the oscillation between El Niño and La Niña conditions. This cycle is called the ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation). The ENSO drives changes in climate that are felt around the world about every two to seven years.

Normal Conditions

In a normal year, the trade winds blow across the Pacific Ocean near the Equator from east to west (toward Asia). A low pressure cell rises above the western equatorial Pacific. Warm water in the western Pacific Ocean raises sea levels by half a meter. Along the western coast of South America, the Peru Current carries cold water northward, and then westward along the Equator with the trade winds. Upwelling brings cold, nutrient-rich waters from the deep sea.

Diagram of normal years on the Pacific Ocean

Under normal conditions, low pressure and warm water (shown in red) build up in the western Pacific Ocean. Notice that continents are shown in brown in the image. North and South America are on the right in this image.

El Niño

In an El Niño year, when water temperature reaches around 28oC (82oF), the trade winds weaken or reverse direction and blow east (toward South America) (Figure below). Warm water is dragged back across the Pacific Ocean and piles up off the west coast of South America. With warm, low-density water at the surface, upwelling stops. Without upwelling, nutrients are scarce and plankton populations decline. Since plankton form the base of the food web, fish cannot find food, and fish numbers decrease as well. All the animals that eat fish, including birds and humans, are affected by the decline in fish.

Diagram of El Nino years on the Pacific Ocean

In El Niño conditions, the trade winds weaken or reverse directions. Warm water moves eastward across the Pacific Ocean and piles up against South America.

By altering atmospheric and oceanic circulation, El Niño events change global climate patterns.

  • Some regions receive more than average rainfall, including the west coast of North and South America, the southern United States, and Western Europe.
  • Drought occurs in other parts of South America, the western Pacific, southern and northern Africa, and southern Europe.

An El Niño cycle lasts one to two years. Often, normal circulation patterns resume. Sometimes circulation patterns bounce back quickly and extremely (Figure below). This is a La Niña.

La Niña

In a La Niña year, as in a normal year, trade winds moves from east to west and warm water piles up in the western Pacific Ocean. Ocean temperatures along coastal South America are colder than normal (instead of warmer, as in El Niño). Cold water reaches farther into the western Pacific than normal.

Diagram of La Nina years on the Pacific Ocean

A La Niña year is like a normal year but the circulation patterns are more extreme.

Other important oscillations are smaller and have a local, rather than global, effect. The North Atlantic Oscillation mostly alters climate in Europe. The Mediterranean also goes through cycles, varying between being dry at some times and warm and wet at others.


  • El Niño and La Niña are two examples of short-term climate changes lasting one to a few years.
  • In an El Niño, the trade winds reverse direction, as do the equatorial surface currents, causing warm water to pool off of South America and stop upwelling.
  • A La Niña is like normal conditions only more so.


  1. Describe what happens with wind and current directions during an El Niño event.
  2. Why does an El Niño cause a collapse of the food chain off of South America?
  3. How does a La Niña event compare with an El Niño event?

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Use this resource to answer the questions that follow.

  1. What are El Niño and La Niña characterized by?
  2. What is the temperature situation like in the equatorial Pacific during a La Niña?
  3. What is the temperature situation like in the equatorial Pacific during a El Niño?
  4. What happens when upwelling is shut off offshore of South America?
  5. What happens to the United States during an El Niño?
  6. What happens to the United States during an La Niña

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    El Niño

    A natural climate variation in which the trade winds weaken or reverse directions, and warm water accumulates on the ocean surface off of South America.

    La Niña

    A natural climate variation in which the trade winds are stronger than normal and surface water off of South America is cold.

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