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Applications of the Pythagorean Theorem

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Applications of the Pythagorean Theorem

What if you were given an equilateral triangle in which all the sides measured 4 inches? How could you use the Pythagorean Theorem to find the triangle's altitude? After completing this Concept, you'll be able to solve problems like this one.

Watch This

CK-12 Foundation: Applications of the Pythagorean Theorem

James Sousa: Pythagorean Theorem and Its Converse

Guidance

Find the Height of an Isosceles Triangle

One way to use The Pythagorean Theorem is to find the height of an isosceles triangle (see Example A).

Prove the Distance Formula

Another application of the Pythagorean Theorem is the Distance Formula. We will prove it here.

Let’s start with point A(x_1, y_1) and point B(x_2, y_2). We will call the distance between A and B, d.

Draw the vertical and horizontal lengths to make a right triangle.

Now that we have a right triangle, we can use the Pythagorean Theorem to find the hypotenuse, d.

d^2 &= (x_1-x_2)^2 + (y_1-y_2)^2\\d &= \sqrt{(x_1 - x_2)^2 + (y_1 - y_2)^2}

Distance Formula: The distance between A(x_1, y_1) and B(x_2, y_2) is d = \sqrt{(x_1 - x_2)^2 + (y_1 - y_2)^2}.

Classify a Triangle as Acute, Right, or Obtuse

We can extend the converse of the Pythagorean Theorem to determine if a triangle is an obtuse or acute triangle.

Acute Triangles: If the sum of the squares of the two shorter sides in a right triangle is greater than the square of the longest side, then the triangle is acute.

For b < c and a < c, if a^2 + b^2 > c^2, then the triangle is acute.

Obtuse Triangles: If the sum of the squares of the two shorter sides in a right triangle is less than the square of the longest side, then the triangle is obtuse.

For b < c and a < c, if a^2+b^2<c^2, then the triangle is obtuse.

Example A

What is the height of the isosceles triangle?

Draw the altitude from the vertex between the congruent sides, which will bisect the base.

7^2 + h^2 &= 9^2\\49 + h^2 &= 81\\h^2 &= 32\\h &= \sqrt{32} = \sqrt{16 \cdot 2} = 4 \sqrt{2}

Example B

Find the distance between (1, 5) and (5, 2).

Make A(1, 5) and B(5, 2). Plug into the distance formula.

d &= \sqrt{(1-5)^2 + (5-2)^2}\\&= \sqrt{(-4)^2 + (3)^2}\\&= \sqrt{16+9} = \sqrt{25} = 5

Just like the lengths of the sides of a triangle, distances are always positive.

Example C

Graph A(-4, 1), B(3, 8), and C(9, 6). Determine if \triangle ABC is acute, obtuse, or right.

Use the distance formula to find the length of each side.

AB &= \sqrt{(-4-3)^2 + (1-8)^2} = \sqrt{49+49} = \sqrt{98}\\BC &= \sqrt{(3-9)^2 + (8-6)^2} = \sqrt{36 + 4} = \sqrt{40}\\AC &= \sqrt{(-4-9)^2 + (1-6)^2} = \sqrt{169 + 25} = \sqrt{194}

Plug these lengths into the Pythagorean Theorem.

\left( \sqrt{98} \right )^2 + \left( \sqrt{40} \right)^2 & \ ? \ \left ( \sqrt{194} \right )^2\\98 + 40 & \ ? \ 194\\138 & < 194

\triangle ABC is an obtuse triangle.

CK-12 Foundation: Applications of the Pythagorean Theorem

Guided Practice

Determine if the following triangles are acute, right or obtuse.

1.

2.

3. A triangle with side lengths 5, 12, 13.

Answers:

Set the longest side equal to c.

1. 6^2 + \left( 3 \sqrt{5} \right)^2 & \ ? \ 8^2\\36 + 45  & \ ? \ 64\\81 & > 64

The triangle is acute.

2. 15^2 + 14^2 & \ ? \ 21^2\\225 + 196 & \ ? \ 441\\421 & < 441

The triangle is obtuse.

3. 5^2 +12^2 = 13^2 so this triangle is right.

Practice

Find the height of each isosceles triangle below. Simplify all radicals.

Find the length between each pair of points.

  1. (-1, 6) and (7, 2)
  2. (10, -3) and (-12, -6)
  3. (1, 3) and (-8, 16)
  4. What are the length and width of a 42” HDTV? Round your answer to the nearest tenth.
  5. Standard definition TVs have a length and width ratio of 4:3. What are the length and width of a 42” Standard definition TV? Round your answer to the nearest tenth.

Determine whether the following triangles are acute, right or obtuse.

  1. 7, 8, 9
  2. 14, 48, 50
  3. 5, 12, 15
  4. 13, 84, 85
  5. 20, 20, 24
  6. 35, 40, 51
  7. 39, 80, 89
  8. 20, 21, 38
  9. 48, 55, 76

Graph each set of points and determine whether \triangle ABC is acute, right, or obtuse, using the distance formula.

  1. A(3, -5), B(-5, -8), C(-2, 7)
  2. A(5, 3), B(2, -7), C(-1, 5)
  3. A(1, 6) , B(5, 2), C(-2, 3)
  4. A(-6, 1), B(-4, -5), C(5, -2)

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