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# SAS Triangle Congruence

## Two sets of corresponding sides and included angles prove congruent triangles.

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SAS Triangle Congruence

What if you were given two triangles and provided with only two of their side lengths and the measure of the angle between those two sides? How could you determine if the two triangles were congruent? After completing this Concept, you'll be able to use the Side-Angle-Side (SAS) shortcut to prove triangle congruency.

### Watch This

Watch the portions of the following two videos that deal with SAS triangle congruence.

Finally, watch this video.

### Guidance

If two sides and the included angle in one triangle are congruent to two sides and the included angle in another triangle, then the two triangles are congruent. (When an angle is between two given sides of a polygon it is called an included angle .)

$\overline{AC} \cong \overline{XZ}, \ \overline{BC} \cong \overline{YZ}$ , and $\angle{C} \cong \angle{Z}$ , then $\triangle ABC \cong \triangle XYZ$ .

This is called the Side-Angle-Side (SAS) Postulate and it is a shortcut for proving that two triangles are congruent. The placement of the word Angle is important because it indicates that the angle you are given is between the two sides.

$\angle{B}$ would be the included angle for sides $\overline{AB}$ and $\overline{BC}$ .

#### Example A

What additional piece of information do you need to show that these two triangles are congruent using the SAS Postulate?

a) $\angle{ABC} \cong \angle{LKM}$

b) $\overline{AB} \cong \overline{LK}$

c) $\overline{BC} \cong \overline{KM}$

d) $\angle{BAC} \cong \angle{KLM}$

For the SAS Postulate, you need the side on the other side of the angle. In $\triangle ABC$ , that is $\overline{BC}$ and in $\triangle LKM$ that is $\overline{KM}$ . The answer is c.

#### Example B

Write a two-column proof to show that the two triangles are congruent.

Given : $C$ is the midpoint of $\overline{AE}$ and $\overline{DB}$

Prove : $\triangle ACB \cong \triangle ECD$

Statement Reason
1. $C$ is the midpoint of $\overline{AE}$ and $\overline{DB}$ 1. Given
2. $\overline{AC} \cong \overline{CE}, \ \overline{BC} \cong \overline{CD}$ 2. Definition of a midpoint
3. $\angle{ACB} \cong \angle{DCE}$ 3. Vertical Angles Postulate
4. $\triangle ACB \cong \triangle ECD$ 4. SAS Postulate

#### Example C

Is the pair of triangles congruent? If so, write the congruence statement and why.

While the triangles have two pairs of sides and one pair of angles that are congruent, the angle is not in the same place in both triangles. The first triangle fits with SAS, but the second triangle is SSA. There is not enough information for us to know whether or not these triangles are congruent.

### Guided Practice

1. Is the pair of triangles congruent? If so, write the congruence statement and why.

2. State the additional piece of information needed to show that each pair of triangles is congruent.

3. Fill in the blanks in the proof below.

Given :

$\overline{AB} \cong \overline{DC}, \ \overline{BE} \cong \overline{CE}$

Prove : $\triangle ABE \cong \triangle ACE$

Statement Reason
1. 1.
2. $\angle{AEB} \cong \angle{DEC}$ 2.
3. $\triangle ABE \cong \triangle ACE$ 3.

1. The pair of triangles is congruent by the SAS postulate. $\triangle CAB \cong \triangle QRS$ .

2. We know that one pair of sides and one pair of angles are congruent from the diagram. In order to know that the triangles are congruent by SAS we need to know that the pair of sides on the other side of the angle are congruent. So, we need to know that $\overline{EF} \cong \overline{BA}$ .

3.

Statement Reason
1. $\overline{AB} \cong \overline{DC}, \ \overline{BE} \cong \overline{CE}$ 1. Given
2. $\angle{AEB} \cong \angle{DEC}$ 2. Vertical Angle Theorem
3. $\triangle ABE \cong \triangle ACE$ 3. SAS postulate

### Practice

Are the pairs of triangles congruent? If so, write the congruence statement and why.

State the additional piece of information needed to show that each pair of triangles is congruent.

1. Use SAS
2. Use SAS
3. Use SAS

Fill in the blanks in the proofs below.

1. Given : $B$ is a midpoint of $\overline{DC}$ $\overline{AB} \perp \overline{DC}$ Prove : $\triangle ABD \cong \triangle ABC$
Statement Reason
1. $B$ is a midpoint of $\overline{DC}, \overline{AB} \perp \overline{DC}$ 1.
2. 2. Definition of a midpoint
3. $\angle{ABD}$ and $\angle{ABC}$ are right angles 3.
4. 4. All right angles are $\cong$
5. 5.
6. $\triangle{ABD} \cong \triangle{ABC}$ 6.
1. Given : $\overline{AB}$ is an angle bisector of $\angle{DAC}$ $\overline{AD} \cong \overline{AC}$ Prove : $\triangle ABD \cong \triangle ABC$
Statement Reason
1. 1.
2. $\angle{DAB} \cong \angle{BAC}$ 2.
3. 3. Reflexive PoC
4. $\triangle ABD \cong \triangle ABC$ 4.
1. Given : $B$ is the midpoint of $\overline{DE}$ and $\overline{AC}$ $\angle{ABE}$ is a right angle Prove : $\triangle ABE \cong \triangle CBD$
Statement Reason
1. 1. Given
2. $\overline{DB} \cong \overline{BE}, \ \overline{AB} \cong \overline{BC}$ 2.
3. 3. Definition of a Right Angle
4. 4. Vertical Angle Theorem
5. $\triangle ABE \cong \triangle CBD$ 5.
1. Given : $\overline{DB}$ is the angle bisector of $\angle{ADC}$ $\overline{AD} \cong \overline{DC}$ Prove : $\triangle ABD \cong \triangle CBD$
Statement Reason
1. 1.
2. $\angle{ADB} \cong \angle{BDC}$ 2.
3. 3.
4. $\triangle ABD \cong \triangle CBD$ 4.

### Vocabulary Language: English

Base Angles

Base Angles

The base angles of an isosceles triangle are the angles formed by the base and one leg of the triangle.
Congruent

Congruent

Congruent figures are identical in size, shape and measure.
Equilateral Triangle

Equilateral Triangle

An equilateral triangle is a triangle in which all three sides are the same length.
Included Angle

Included Angle

The included angle in a triangle is the angle between two known sides.
SAS

SAS

SAS means side, angle, side, and refers to the fact that two sides and the included angle of a triangle are known.
Side Angle Side Triangle

Side Angle Side Triangle

A side angle side triangle is a triangle where two of the sides and the angle between them are known quantities.
Triangle Congruence

Triangle Congruence

Triangle congruence occurs if 3 sides in one triangle are congruent to 3 sides in another triangle.
Rigid Transformation

Rigid Transformation

A rigid transformation is a transformation that preserves distance and angles, it does not change the size or shape of the figure.