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Components that make up protons, neutrons and electrons.

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Smaller Than Protons and Neutrons

Smaller Than Protons and Neutrons

Credit: Robert Lopez
Source: CK-12 Foundation
License: CC BY-NC 3.0

Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig initially proposed the quark model in 1964 during early research on elementary particles. The image above shows a proton that is made up of three subatomic particles known as quarks: two up quarks and one down quark.

News You Can Use

  • All particles that interact through a nuclear force known as strong interaction are classified as hadrons. Hadrons can be further classified as either baryons and mesons, based on the quarks that make them up. Whether baryon or meson, each hadron is made up of two or three elementary particles. These elementary particles are made up of particles called quarks. 
  • There are 6 types of quarks: 
    1. up
    2. down
    3. top
    4. bottom
    5. strange
    6. charm
  • All quarks have several intrinsic properties as well, such as:
    • electric charge
    • mass
    • color
    • charge
    • spin
  • Use the link to the table of properties of quarks and the video below to answer the following questions about quarks.

Show What You Know

Using the information provided above, answer the following questions.

  1. A neutron is made up of what types and total number of quarks?
  2. Do fermions or bosons have integer spin?
  3. What force keeps the quarks together in a proton?

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Image Attributions

  1. [1]^ Credit: Robert Lopez; Source: CK-12 Foundation; License: CC BY-NC 3.0

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