Students will gain an understanding of the speed of light and work problems involving light. The distance of a light year is also explained and practiced.
Key Equations
; distance is equal to the speed of light multiplied by the time it has traveled
Guidance
 Light travels at . We call this value c . Light can never travel at any other speed. Although when light travels through materials, due to scattering and absorption it appears that light is going slightly slower (see refraction lesson for more detail).
 A light year is the amount of distance light covers in a time of one year. The value of one light year is simply the speed of light multiplied by the number of seconds in a year and is roughly equal to .
 Viewing distant stars is looking back in time. The stars we see are many thousands of light years away, which means the light takes many thousands of years to reach us. Thus the stars we see in the sky are how they looked thousands of years ago.
Example 1
Question How long after texting your friend on Mars will he receive it?
Answer Mars is a distance of . Thus, using the equation = 1033 seconds or about 17 minutes.
Time for Practice
 Our sun is 8 “light minutes” from earth.

The Canis Major Dwarf galaxy is
.
 How far is it in light years?
 If the galaxy were to disappear, how long until we notice it vanish on Earth?
 Light does not travel infinitely fast – its speed in a vacuum is . We measure very large astronomical distances in “light years” (LY) – the distance light travels in one year. The closest star beyond our sun is Alpha Centauri, 4 LY away. Some distant quasars are 2 billion LY away. Why do astronomers say that to look at these distant objects is to look back in time? Explain briefly.
Answers to Selected Problems
 a. b.
 about 25,000 cyr
 .