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# Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom

## More exact than the Bohr Model, this model represents atomic energy levels with complex shapes.

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Quantum Computers

### Quantum Computers

Credit: D-Wave Systems, Inc.. Original uploader was Ndickson
Source: commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:DWave_128chip.jpg

The Accelerator and Fusion Research Division at Berkely Lab is trying to develop a quantum computer that utilizes single-electron based transistors.

#### Amazing But True

• To show how powerful a quantum computer is in comparison to a regular computer, we have to compare bits to qubits (quantum bits). If a classical computer uses a three bit register, it can only have one of the eight following states: 000, 001, 010, 100, 011, 101, 110, 111. On the other hand, a quantum computer can be in all of the above possible states at the same time. This implies that the number of possible states for a qubit is 2N, where N is the number of qubits. If 50 qubits are used, a superposition of 250 states is possible, translating to a machine that can process 250 steps in the time it takes the classical computer to take one.

#### Explore More

Using the information provided above, answer the following questions.

1. If you had 3 qubits, how many possible states could you have at once if each bit itself could be 1 or 0?
2. What is Moore's law and why is it important?
3. What is quantum superposition of states?