When given a long list of numbers, it is useful to summarize the data. One way to summarize the data is to give the lowest number, the highest number and the middle number. In addition to these three numbers it is also useful to give the median of the lower half of the data and the median of the upper half of the data. These five numbers give a very concise summary of the data.
What is the five number summary of the following data?
0, 0, 1, 2, 63, 61, 27, 13
Watch This
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XDS5TgZ4CJA The 5 Number Summary
Guidance
Suppose you have ordered data with \begin{align*}m\end{align*} observations. The rank of each observation is shown by its index.
@$\begin{align*}y_1 \le y_2 \le y_3 \le \cdots \le y_m\end{align*}@$
In data sets that are large enough, you can divide the numbers into four parts called quartiles. The quartiles of interest are the first quartile, @$\begin{align*}Q1\end{align*}@$ , the second quartile, @$\begin{align*}Q2\end{align*}@$ , and the third quartile @$\begin{align*}Q3\end{align*}@$ . The second quartile, @$\begin{align*}Q2\end{align*}@$ , is defined to be the median of the data. The first quartile, @$\begin{align*}Q1\end{align*}@$ , is defined to be the median of the lower half of the data. The third quartile, @$\begin{align*}Q3\end{align*}@$ , is similarly defined to be the median of the upper half of the data.
These three numbers in addition to the minimum and maximum values are the five number summary. Note that there are variations of the five number summary that you can study in a statistics course.
Example A
Compute the five number summary for the following data.
2, 7, 17, 19, 25, 26, 26, 32
Solution: There are 8 observations total.
- Lowest value (minimum) : 2
- @$\begin{align*}Q1:\frac{7+17}{2}=12\end{align*}@$ (Note that this is the median of the first half of the data - 2, 7, 17, 19)
- @$\begin{align*}Q2:\frac{19+25}{2}=22\end{align*}@$ (Note that this is the median of the full set of data)
- @$\begin{align*}Q3: 26\end{align*}@$ (Note that this is the median of the second half of the data - 25, 26, 26, 32)
- Upper value (maximum) : 32
Example B
Compute the five number summary for the following data:
4, 8, 11, 11, 12, 14, 16, 20, 21, 25
Solution: There are 10 observations total.
- Lowest value (minimum) : 4
- @$\begin{align*}Q1 : 11\end{align*}@$ (Note that this is the median of the first half of the data - 4, 8, 11, 11, 12)
- @$\begin{align*}Q2 : \frac{12+14}{2}=13\end{align*}@$ (Note that this is the median of the full set of data)
- @$\begin{align*}Q3 : 20\end{align*}@$ (Note that this is the median of the second half of the data - 14, 16, 20, 21, 25)
- Upper value (maximum) : 25
Example C
Compute the five number summary for the following data:
3, 7, 10, 14, 19, 19, 23, 27, 29
Solution: There are 9 observations total. To calculate @$\begin{align*}Q1\end{align*}@$ and @$\begin{align*}Q3\end{align*}@$ , you should include the median in both the lower half and upper half calculations.
- Lowest value (minimum) : 3
- @$\begin{align*}Q1 : 10\end{align*}@$ (this is the median of 3, 7, 10, 14, 19)
- @$\begin{align*}Q2 : 19\end{align*}@$
- @$\begin{align*}Q3 : 23\end{align*}@$ (this is the median of 19, 19, 23, 27, 29)
- Upper value (maximum) : 29
Concept Problem Revisited
To compute the five number summary, it helps to order the data.
0, 0, 1, 2, 13, 27, 61, 63
- Since there are 8 observations, the median is the average of the @$\begin{align*}4^{th}\end{align*}@$ and @$\begin{align*}5^{th}\end{align*}@$ observations: @$\begin{align*}\frac{2+13}{2}=7.5\end{align*}@$
- The lowest observation is 0.
- The highest observation is 63.
- The middle of the lower half is @$\begin{align*}\frac{0+1}{2}=0.5\end{align*}@$
- The middle of the upper half is @$\begin{align*}\frac{27+61}{2}=44\end{align*}@$
The five number summary is 0, 0.5, 7.5, 44, 63
Vocabulary
The rank of an observation is the number of observations that are less than or equal to the value of that observation.
Data is divided into four parts by the first quartile @$\begin{align*}(Q1)\end{align*}@$ , second quartile @$\begin{align*}(Q2)\end{align*}@$ and third quartile @$\begin{align*}(Q3)\end{align*}@$ . The second quartile is also known as the median.
Guided Practice
1. Create a set of data that meets the following five number summary:
{2, 5, 9, 18, 20}
2. Compute the five number summary for the following data:
1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5, 5, 6, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15
3. Compute the five number summary for the following data:
1, 4, 96, 356, 2557, 9881, 14420, 20100
Answers:
1. Suppose there are 8 data points. The lowest point must be 2 and the highest point must be 20. The middle two points must average to be 9 so they could be 8 and 10. The second and third points must average to be 5 so they could be 4 and 6. The sixth and seventh points need to average to be 18 so they could be 18 and 18. Here is one possible answer:
2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 18, 18, 20
2. There are 20 observations.
- Lower : 1
- @$\begin{align*}Q1 : \frac{2+3}{2}=2.5\end{align*}@$
- @$\begin{align*}Q2 : \frac{4+5}{2}=4.5\end{align*}@$
- @$\begin{align*}Q3 : \frac{6+7}{2}=6.5\end{align*}@$
- Upper : 15
3. There are 8 observations.
- Lower : 1
- @$\begin{align*}Q1 : \frac{4+96}{2}=50\end{align*}@$
- @$\begin{align*}Q2 : \frac{356+2557}{2}=1456.5\end{align*}@$
- @$\begin{align*}Q3: \frac{9881+14420}{2}=12150.5\end{align*}@$
- Upper: 20100
Practice
Compute the five number summary for each of the following sets of data:
- 0.16, 0.08, 0.27, 0.20, 0.22, 0.32, 0.25, 0.18, 0.28, 0.27
- 77, 79, 80, 86, 87, 87, 94, 99
- 79, 53, 82, 91, 87, 98, 80, 93
- 91, 85, 76, 86, 96, 51, 68, 92, 85, 72, 66, 88, 93, 82, 84
- 335, 233, 185, 392, 235, 518, 281, 208, 318
- 38, 33, 41, 37, 54, 39, 38, 71, 49, 48, 42, 38
- 3, 7, 8, 5, 12, 14, 21, 13, 18
- 6, 22, 11, 25, 16, 26, 28, 37, 37, 38, 33, 40, 34, 39, 23, 11, 48, 49, 8, 26, 18, 17, 27, 14
- 9, 10, 12, 13, 10, 14, 8, 10, 12, 6, 8, 11, 12, 12, 9, 11, 10, 15, 10, 8, 8, 12, 10, 14, 10, 9, 7, 5, 11, 15, 8, 9, 17, 12, 12, 13, 7, 14, 6, 17, 11, 15, 10, 13, 9, 7, 12, 13, 10, 12
- 49, 57, 53, 54, 49, 67, 51, 57, 56, 59, 57, 50, 49, 52, 53, 50, 58
- 18, 20, 24, 21, 5, 23, 19, 22
- 900, 840, 880, 880, 800, 860, 720, 720, 620, 860, 970, 950, 890, 810, 810, 820, 800, 770, 850, 740, 900, 1070, 930, 850, 950, 980, 980, 880, 960, 940, 960, 940, 880, 800, 850, 880, 760, 740, 750, 760, 890, 840, 780, 810, 760, 810, 790, 810, 820, 850
- 13, 15, 19, 14, 26, 17, 12, 42, 18
- 25, 33, 55, 32, 17, 19, 15, 18, 21
- 149, 123, 126, 122, 129, 120