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Sampling and Bias

Sampling issues and bias

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Vocabulary

bias

bias

Bias refers to a desire to achieve a specific result from a particular study, regardless of the data.
census

census

A census is an official enumeration of the entire population, with details as to age, sex, occupation, etc.
convenience sampling

convenience sampling

Convenience sampling refers to the process of choosing a sample based on members who are easily accessible.
incorrect response bias

incorrect response bias

When an individual intentionally responds to a survey with an untruthful answer, this is called incorrect response bias.
incorrect sampling frame

incorrect sampling frame

Incorrect sampling frame occurs when the group from which you choose your sample does not include everyone in the population, or at least units that reflect the full diversity of the population.
judgement sampling

judgement sampling

Judgment Sampling is a type of sampling occurs when the investigator already has made an assumption about a characteristic of the population, and samples are selected accordingly.
margin of error

margin of error

The margin of error is found by multiplying the standard error of the mean by the z-score of the percent confidence level
non-response bias

non-response bias

Non-response bias is commonly caused by self-selection, subjects with a reason not to respond which may be unrelated to the actual study are not included, skewing the results.
questionnaire bias

questionnaire bias

Questionnaire bias occurs when the way in which the question is asked influences the response given by the individual.
Sample

Sample

A sample is a specified part of a population, intended to represent the population as a whole.
Sampling error (random variation)

Sampling error (random variation)

Sampling error occurs whenever a sample is used instead of the entire population, where we have to accept that our results are merely estimates, and therefore, have some chance of being incorrect.
self-selection

self-selection

Self-selection is a sampling method that requires the subject to offer a response to an input.
undercoverage

undercoverage

Undercoverage describes a sample with too few members of a given group or demographic.
voluntary response bias

voluntary response bias

Voluntary response bias occurs when sample members are self-selected volunteers

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