# 8.1: Exponent Properties Involving Products

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12

## Learning Objectives

At the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

• Use the product of a power property.
• Use the power of a product property.
• Simplify expressions involving product properties of exponents.

## Vocabulary

Terms introduced in this lesson:

power
exponent
square, cube
base
factors of the base
product rule for exponents
power of a product
power rule for exponents

## Teaching Strategies and Tips

Encourage students to review basic exponents in the chapter Real Numbers.

• An exponent is a notation for repeated multiplication of a number, variable, or expression.
• Exponents count how many bases there are in a product
• Parentheses precede exponents in the order of operations.

Write in exponent form.

a.

b.

c.

d.

Encourage proper use of mathematical language:

• is read as “three to the fourth power,” “three to the fourth,” or “three raised to the power of four.” The exponents and are special: , “three squared” and , “three cubed.”
• is read as “quantity cubed.”
• is read as “opposite of three squared.
• is read as “negative three squared”.

To check for conceptual understanding, ask students to translate the following into symbols.

• Square negative two. Answer:
• Negative two squared. Answer:
• The opposite of two squared. Answer:

Allow the class to infer the product rule for exponents in Example 2.

• “When you multiply like bases you add the exponents.”

Allow the class to infer the power rule for exponents in Example 6c.

• “When you raise an exponent to an exponent, you multiply them.”

Combine exponent rules in Examples 6-9.

• Suggest that students apply each rule one step at a time.
• Order of operations must be followed at each step: evaluate exponents before multiplying. See Examples 6a, 6b, and 9.

Simplify the following expressions.

a.

Hint: Apply the exponent before multiplying.

b.

Hint: Simplify in the parentheses first.

c.

Hint: Simplify each term first.

Point out in Example 8 where the commutative property of multiplication is being used.

## Error Troubleshooting

Use Examples 4 and 5 to point out two common errors:

• Multiplying bases incorrectly (exponents are different). .
However, because (exponents are same).
• Applying the product rule incorrectly (bases are different). .

Remind students in Review Question 6 that even powers of negative numbers are positive. Try using a visual to show that negatives cancel in pairs:

General Tip: Occasionally, students forget that:

In Review Question 13, remind students that the exponent in does not apply to . Therefore, is simplified.

a. Explain the difference between and .

b. Explain the difference between and .

Teachers are encouraged to survey the class for answers. Ask: What constitutes the base of an exponent?

General Tip: Encourage students to think about syntax before inputting an expression into a calculator.

• often gets inputted incorrectly as .
• can get inputted incorrectly as .

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