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1.12: Lesson Twelve

Created by: CK-12

The Consonant Sound [p]

1. Underline the letter that spells [p] in the word perfect.

2. Underline the letter that spells [b] in the word behind.

3. Underline the letter that spells [t] in itself.

4. Underline the letter that spells [d] in wonderful.

5. Underline the letter that spells [k] in quiet.

6. Underline the letter that spells [g] in government.

7. In perfect and pop the sound [p] is spelled <\mathrm{p}>. But in many words [p] is spelled <pp>. Underline the letters that spell [p] in the following words:

&\text{o\underline{{p}}en} && \text{a\underline{{pp}}ear} && \text{s\underline{{p}}aghetti} && \text{\underline{p}ur\underline{p}le}\\&\text{\underline{{p}}u\underline{{pp}}ies} && \text{\underline{{p}}icture} && \text{\underline{{p}}erfect} && \text{a\underline{{pp}}le}\\&\text{helico\underline{{p}}ter} && \text{\underline{{p}}eo\underline{{p}}le} && \text{sto\underline{{pp}}ed} && \text{im\underline{{p}}ortant}\\&\text{\underline{{p}}revent} && \text{\underline{{p}}laces} && \text{u\underline{{p}}on} && \text{zi\underline{{pp}}er}

8. Now sort the words into these two groups. Be careful! One word goes into both groups:

Words with [p] spelled ...
<\mathrm{p}> <pp>
open places puppies
puppies spaghetti appear
helicopter perfect stopped
prevent upon apple
picture purple zipper
people important

9. Two ways of spelling [p] are \underline{<p>} and <pp>.

Watch the Middles! Fill in the blanks. Remember that as you read and write the word parts, you should spell them out to yourself, letter by letter.

prevent
pre vent
pre vent
pre vent
prevent
perfect
per fect
per fect
per fect
perfect
appear
ap pear
ap pear
ap pear
appear
surprise
sur prise
sur prise
sur prise
surprise
purples
purple s
purple s
purple s
purples
picture
pict ure
pict ure
pict ure
picture

Teaching Notes.

1. In Item 5 if the question comes up as to whether [k] is being spelled <q> or <qu>, point out that quiet is pronounced ['kwīət], so that the <\mathrm{u}> is spelling [w], which leaves only the <q> to spell [k]. In some words with <qu> the <\mathrm{u}> does not spell [w]: In mosquito, for instance, the pronunciation is [məs'kētō], with no [w]. So in mosquito we would say that [k] is spelled <qu>, but in quiet, with the <\mathrm{u}> spelling [w], we have only the <q> to spell [k].

2. The two spellings <\mathrm{p}> and <pp> account for more than 99\% of the occurrences of [p]. And Lessons 39-40 of Book Four show how we can predict with certainty when to use <\mathrm{p}> and when to use <pp>. The other less than 1\% of the occurrences of [p] are in some pronunciations of diphtheria, diphthong, and naphtha, in all of which [p] is spelled <ph>; in subpoena, in which [p] is spelled <bp>; and in hiccough, in which we apparently must say that [p] is spelled <gh>, though hiccough has the more regular spelling hiccup. For more on these very minor spellings of [p], see section 26.3.2, pp. 334-35, of AES.

3. Watch the Middles. Notice that sometimes the meaning you get by adding up the meanings of the word parts is different from the current meaning of the word as a whole. Usually, however, there is a logical enough connection. In prevent, for instance, pre- is a prefix that means “before, early” and occurs in dozens of words,including preschool, prehistoric, premature, prepaid, etc. The root meaning of the base ventis “come.” The parts of prevent, then, add up to “to come before” or “to come early.” It is not too far from that root meaning to the word's current meaning of “to hinder, stop, avert.”

In appear ap- is a form of the prefix ad-, meaning “to, toward,” with which students will work in Book Four. The base pear “show” occurs only in appear. It is related to the base par in apparent and apparition; it is not related to the word pear meaning a kind of fruit.

In perfect the prefix per- means “thorough, thoroughly”; the base fect “make, do” occurs in words like affect, confection, defect, effective, infected.

In surprise sur- is a prefix meaning “over, above, in addition.” It occurs in words like surmount, surplus, surtax, survive. The base prise means “take” and occurs in words like apprise, comprise, enterprise, reprisal

In picture pict means “paint” and occurs in words like depict and pictorial. The suffix -ure forms nouns and occurs in words like pressure, culture, pleasure.

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1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5

Date Created:

Feb 23, 2012

Last Modified:

Apr 29, 2014
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CK.LNG.ENG.TE.1.Basic-Speller.1.12

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