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# 1.22: Lesson Twenty-two

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12

## Long and Short <i>\begin{align*}<\mathrm{i}>\end{align*} and <o>

1. You can hear short <i>\begin{align*}<\mathrm{i}>\end{align*} in the word hid. We write it this way: [i]. You can hear long <i>\begin{align*}<\mathrm{i}>\end{align*} in the word hide. We write it [i¯]\begin{align*}[\bar{\mathrm{i}}]\end{align*}.

2. You can hear short <o> in the word got. We write it [o]. You can hear long <o> in the word goat. We write it [o¯]\begin{align*}[\bar{\mathrm{o}}]\end{align*}.

3. Listen carefully for the long and short <i>\begin{align*}<\mathrm{i}>\end{align*}'s and <o>'s in these words. Then sort the words into the groups below:

bigclosewhileopenhopsisterhotterheightsothosetwicehomebridgebottlehidewritesoftsixgothid\begin{align*}&\text{big} && \text{sister} && \text{twice} && \text{write}\\ &\text{close} && \text{hotter} && \text{home} && \text{soft}\\ &\text{while} && \text{height} && \text{bridge} && \text{six}\\ &\text{open} && \text{so} && \text{bottle} && \text{got}\\ &\text{hop} && \text{those} && \text{hide} && \text{hid}\end{align*}

words with ...
[i] [i¯]\begin{align*}[\bar{\mathrm{i}}]\end{align*} [o] [o¯]\begin{align*}[\bar{\mathrm{o}}]\end{align*}
big while hop close
sister height hotter open
bridge twice bottle so
six hide soft those
hid write got home

4. Read each word below carefully. If the vowel in a word is long, put an <X> in the "Long vowel" column. If the vowel in a word is short, put an <X> in the "Short vowel" column:

Word Long vowel Short vowel
then X
bring X
hide X
last X
name X
still X
leave X
left X
left X
long X
those X
height X
three X
day X
peace X
fruit X
laugh X
twice X
soft X
hide X
hid X
chance X

Word Find. Find the twelve words that have either long or short <o>'s in them:

hotdogopenhomecannotdotonlongsofoxclosethosegot\begin{align*}&\text{hotdog}\surd && \text{cannot}\surd && \text{long}\surd && \text{close}\surd\\ &\text{open}\surd && \text{dot}\surd && \text{so}\surd && \text{those}\surd\\ &\text{home} && \text{on}\surd && \text{fox}\surd && \text{got}\surd\end{align*}

List the words in alphabetical order:

1. cannot
2. close
3. dot
4. fox
5. got
6. home
7. hotdog
8. long
9. on
10. open
11. so
12. those

Teaching Notes.

1. The sound here called short <o>, [o], simplifies a number of problems in English pronunciation. It is a low back vowel sound, which means that it is pronounced well back in the mouth with the tongue in a low position (You can feel these features if you compare it with, for instance, long <e>, [e¯]\begin{align*}[\bar{\mathrm{e}}]\end{align*}, a high front vowel. Pronounce saw and see a few times and you should feel the difference in the way you pronounce the [o] in saw and the [e¯]\begin{align*}[\bar{\mathrm{e}}]\end{align*} in see. Most analyses of American English show two or three low back vowels like [o]. For instance, Webster's Third International shows two main low back vowel sounds: the sound in cot, which they symbolize as [a¨]\begin{align*}[\ddot{\mathrm{a}}]\end{align*}, and that in caught, which they symbolize as [o˙]\begin{align*}[\dot{\mathrm{o}}]\end{align*}. They also show a rather similar sound that they symbolize as [a˙]\begin{align*}[\dot{\mathrm{a}}]\end{align*} and describe as the sound midway between the vowel sounds in cod and cad. The American Heritage Dictionary also shows three low back vowels, which they illustrate with the words cot, caught, and father. The sounds represented by these various low back sounds are so close together in most American dialects that it would be very difficult to have the youngsters try to distinguish two or three of them, so, like at least some elementary dictionaries, the Basic Speller collapses the two or three into one. It would be a good idea to check to see how the dictionary and other language arts materials in your classroom analyze the sounds like short <o>. For more on this complication, see AES, pp. 204-06 and 231-40. For more on [i] see pp. 222-30, for [i¯]\begin{align*}[\bar{\mathrm{i}}]\end{align*}, pp. 271-79, and for [o¯]\begin{align*}[\bar{\mathrm{o}}]\end{align*}, pp. 280-87.
2. Word Find. The find contains the unlisted LOX, with [o]. It also contains OZ, OK and TOY, about which students may raise questions. OZ is still treated as a proper name. OK or O.K., when it is not spelled okay, is always in upper case. It appears to be an abbreviation of the name “Old Kinderhook,” applied to Martin Van Buren during his presidential campaign. TOY does not contain [o] or [o¯]\begin{align*}[\bar{\mathrm{o}}]\end{align*}; it contains the diphthong [oi], which is discussed in Book Four.

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