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# 1.23: Lesson Twenty-three

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12

## The Four Long and Short \begin{align*}<\mathrm{u}>\end{align*} Sounds

1. There are two different short \begin{align*}<\mathrm{u}>\end{align*} sounds. You can hear the first one in the word duck. We write it this way: [u]. We call it short \begin{align*}<\mathrm{u}>\end{align*}.

You can hear the second short \begin{align*}<\mathrm{u}>\end{align*} sound in the word bull. We write it this way: \begin{align*}[\breve{\mathrm{oo}}]\end{align*}. We call it short <oo>, which sounds like "short ooh.".

2. There are also two different long \begin{align*}<\mathrm{u}>\end{align*} sounds. You can hear the first one in the word tuna. We write it \begin{align*}[\bar{\mathrm{oo}}]\end{align*}. We call it long <oo>, which sounds like “long ooh”.

You can hear the second long \begin{align*}<\mathrm{u}>\end{align*} sound in the word mule. We write this second long \begin{align*}<\mathrm{u}> \ [\mathrm{y} \bar{oo}]\end{align*}. We call it long <yu>, which sounds like “long you”.

3. Listen for the short and long \begin{align*}<\mathrm{u}>\end{align*}'s in these words. Then sort the words into the four groups below:

\begin{align*}&\text{but} && \text{used} && \text{good} && \text{touch}\\ &\text{whose} && \text{school} && \text{few} && \text{music}\\ &\text{govern} && \text{puppy} && \text{zoo} && \text{enough}\\ &\text{fuel} && \text{could} && \text{through} && \text{rule}\\ &\text{fruit} && \text{view} && \text{cube} && \text{number}\end{align*}

Words with...
[u] as in duck \begin{align*}[\breve{\mathrm{oo}}]\end{align*} as in bull \begin{align*}[\bar{\mathrm{oo}}]\end{align*} as in tuna \begin{align*}[\mathrm{y}\bar{\mathrm{oo}}]\end{align*} as in mule
but could whose fuel
govern good fruit used
puppy school view
touch zoo few
enough through cube
number rule music

5. Write two other words with [u]: ANSWERS WILL VARY.

6. Write two other words with \begin{align*}[\breve{\mathrm{oo}}]\end{align*}: ANSWERS WILL VARY.

7. Write two other words with \begin{align*}[\bar{\mathrm{oo}}]\end{align*}: ANSWERS WILL VARY.

8. Write two other words with \begin{align*}[\mathrm{y}\bar{oo}]\end{align*}: ANSWERS WILL VARY.

9. Write two words with [i]: ANSWERS WILL VARY.

10. Write two words with \begin{align*}[\bar{\mathrm{i}}]\end{align*}: ANSWERS WILL VARY.

11. Write two words with [o]: ANSWERS WILL VARY.

12. Write two words with \begin{align*}[\bar{\mathrm{o}}]\end{align*}: ANSWERS WILL VARY..

Watch the Middles!

kicker
kick er
kick er
kick er
kicker
couldn't
could n't
could n't
could n't
couldn't
viewer
view er
view er
view er
viewer
throughout
through out
through out
through out
throughout

Teaching Notes.

1. This could prove to be a very difficult lesson for many students. Having two short \begin{align*}<\mathrm{u}>\end{align*} and two more long \begin{align*}<\mathrm{u}>\end{align*} sounds is inherently confusing. And in some cases — the distinction between the sound of [u] and \begin{align*}[\breve{\mathrm{oo}}]\end{align*}, for instance — the sound differences can be hard to detect and remember. For the table in Item \begin{align*}3\end{align*} you may have to pronounce the words for the students in contrastive pairs like but/book, fuel/fool, could/cud, could/cooed.

After the table in Item 3 has been correctly filled in, it would be good to have the students listen to and read aloud the four subgroups. Doing so should reinforce for them the similarity of sound in each subgroup and the differences in sound across groups.

2. Item 6 could also prove to be surprisingly difficult, for there are not many words with the short <oo>, \begin{align*}[\breve{\mathrm{oo}}]\end{align*}, in them. The following are the more common instances: book,brook, cook, crook, foot, good, hood, hook, look, rook, shook, soot, stood, took, wood, woof, wool, and the suffix -hood; ambush, bull, bullet, bushel, butcher, -ful, full, pudding, pull, pulley, pulpit, push, sugar, should, would; wolf, woman.

3. Long <oo> can be referred to either as “long double <o>” or as “long ooh.” Short <oo> can be referred to either as “short double <o>” or as “short ooh”.

4. This lesson would be a good occasion for a mnemonic exercise. You could, for instance, ask the students to draw a picture of the four animals referred to in the example words: duck, bull, tuna, mule. Each should be labeled with the appropriate phonetic symbol: [u], \begin{align*}[\breve{\mathrm{oo}}],[\bar{\mathrm{oo}}],[y \bar{\mathrm{oo}}]\end{align*}. The goofier the picture and the more unusual the labeling (perhaps the phonetic symbol \begin{align*}[\bar{\mathrm{oo}}]\end{align*} could be being carried on a banner held in the tuna's mouth, for instance), the better an aid the picture will be to memory.

5. If students are confused by the n't in the couldn't Middles, tell them that it is short for, or a contraction of, the word not. Contractions are discussed in Book Five.

6. For more on [u], see AES, pp. 244-48; for \begin{align*}[\breve{\mathrm{oo}}]\end{align*}, see pp. 241-43; for \begin{align*}[\bar{\mathrm{oo}}]\end{align*}, pp. 288-96, and for \begin{align*}[\mathrm{y} \bar{\mathrm{oo}}]\end{align*}, pp. 297-300, where different symbols are used for short <oo> and long <oo>.

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