1. We will examine six different ways of spelling [n]. But first see how many you can think of and try to write a word that contains each spelling. If you can't think of all six, don't worry too much about it:
a. Sometimes [n] is spelled <n> as in the word balance, etc..
b. Sometimes [n] is spelled <nn> as in the word announce, etc.
c. Sometimes [n] is spelled <gn> as in the word sign, etc.
d. Sometimes [n] is spelled <kn> as in the word knew, etc.
e. Sometimes [n] is spelled <pn> as in the word pneumonia.
f. Sometimes [n] is spelled <mn> as in the word mnemonic.
2. Think about the consonant sounds you have worked with so far, and answer these questions:
a. How do you think the sound [n] is usually spelled? <n>
b. What would you expect to be the next most common spelling of [n]? <nn>
3. Now underline the letters that spell [n] in the following words:
4. How is [n] spelled in all of these words? <n> . Usually [n] is spelled this way – about nine times out of ten, in fact!
5. You have seen that double consonants, such as <nn>, can be caused by twinning or assimilation or simple addition. Sometimes twinning can cause an <nn>: fan + n + ing = fanning. Sometimes assimilation can cause an <nn>: ad + n + nounce = announce, and com + n + nect = connect. And simple addition can cause an <nn> when an element that starts with <n> is added to another element that ends with <n>: un + named = unnamed, and stubborn + ness = stubbornness..
6. All of the following words contain an <nn> that is caused by one of the three things described above. Analyze each word enough to show where the two <n>'s come from. Then in the ‘Cause’ column write the cause for the <nn> in each word — either “Twinning,” “Assimilation,” or “Simple Addition”:
= ad + n + nounce
= com + n + nect
= in + nocent
= tin + n + y
= un + nourishing
= non + nuclear
= skin + n + y
= un + necessary
= non + native
= in + numerable
= begin + n + er
= common + ness
= ad + n + nihilate
= un + nodding
= ad + n + nex
= ad + n + nul
= non + noble
= sudden + ness
= com + n + nive
= begin + n + ing
= can + not
= stubborn + ness
= sun + n +y + i + est
7. So far you have examined two different ways to spell [n]: <n> and <nn>.
The sound [n] is spelled these two ways about ninety-nine times out of a hundred!
Item 1. The <gn> spelling of [n] is discussed in Lesson 43. The <kn>, <pn>, and <mn> spellings are discussed in Lesson 44, For more on the spelling [n], see AES, pp. 429-35.