# 11.17: Four Bound Bases

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12

## Four Bound Bases

1. Elements are the smallest parts of written words that add meaning to the words. There are three kinds of elements: prefixes, bases, and suffixes.

Prefixes are elements that go at the front of words and (can\begin{align*}\cancel{\mathrm{can}}\end{align*} / cannot) stand free as words. In the words unguided and receptive un- and re- are prefixes. Suffixes are elements that go at the end of words and (can\begin{align*}\cancel{\mathrm{can}}\end{align*} / cannot) stand free as words. In the words unguided and receptive, -ed and -ive are suffixes. Bases are elements that can have prefixes and suffixes added at the front and back. In the words unguided and receptive guide and cept are bases.

There are two kinds of bases, free and bound. Free bases (can / cannot\begin{align*}\cancel{\mathrm{cannot}}\end{align*}) stand free as words, but bound bases (can\begin{align*}\cancel{\mathrm{can}}\end{align*} / cannot).

2. Each of the following words consists of prefixes, suffixes, and bound bases. You have worked with most of the elements in previous lessons. You should find four different bound bases in the eighteen words. Analyze each word into its elements. Be sure to show any assimilations or other changes that take place:

Word = Analysis
accepted = ad\begin{align*}\cancel{d}\end{align*} + cept + ed
effective = ex\begin{align*}\cancel{x}\end{align*} + f + fect + ive
concepts = com\begin{align*}\cancel{m}\end{align*}+ n + cept + s
infection = in + fect + ion
suggestion = sub\begin{align*}\cancel{b}\end{align*} + g + gest + ion
prospecting = pro + spect + ing
suggested = sub\begin{align*}\cancel{b}\end{align*} + g + gest + ed
affection = ad\begin{align*}\cancel{d}\end{align*} + f + fect + ion
congested = com\begin{align*}\cancel{m}\end{align*} + n + gest + ed
receptive = re + cept + ive
except = ex + cept
interception = inter + cept + ion
defective = de + fect + ive
respectable = re + spect + able
perfected = per + fect + ed
introspective = intro + spect + ive
retrospective = retro + spect + ive

3. The four bound bases are cept , fect , gest , and spect .

4. Each of the following words consists of a prefix, a bound base, and a suffix. The bound bases are the same ones you just worked with. Some of the prefixes and suffixes may be new to you. Don't let that bother you. Analyze each word. Watch for changes when suffixes get added:

Word = Analysis
affection = ad\begin{align*}\cancel{d}\end{align*} + f + fect + ion
interception = inter + cept + ion
respectful = re + spect + ful
deceptive = de + cept + ive
perspective = per + spect + ive
confection = com\begin{align*}\cancel{m}\end{align*} + n + fect + ion
circumspectly = circum + spect + ly
reception = re + cept + ion
receptacle = re + cept + acle
susceptible = sub\begin{align*}\cancel{b}\end{align*} + s + cept + ible
imperceptible = in\begin{align*}\cancel{n}\end{align*} + m + per + cept + ible

Word Turn. Try to spell out six words that start and end with the letters of the word rhythm spelled once forwards and once again turned around backwards. The words you spell can be of any length, but they must start and end with the letters given in the six rows. We’ve given you a start:

rhythmroamhealthmhtyhr\begin{align*}& \text{r} && roam && \text{m} \\ & \text{h} && health && \text{h} \\ & \text{y} && && \text{t} \\ & \text{t} && && \text{y} \\ & \text{h} && && \text{h} \\ & \text{m} && && \text{r}\end{align*}

Teaching Notes.

Word Turn. Word Turns can be deceptive: some rows are easy to fill in because there are many, many words with the required initial and final letters. But other rows can be quite demanding. Here are some words that fit the four open rows in this Turn: y...t: yacht, yeast, yet, yogurt, youngest, yellowest, yuckiest, yummiest; t...y: tarry,temporary, they, tiny, today; h...h: harsh, hatch, health, high, hush; m...r:major, manager, meteor, mirror, monster .

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