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11.24: Lesson Twenty-four

Created by: CK-12

The Sounds <\mathrm{a}> of Before <ll>

1. Usually the <ll> spelling follows the VCC pattern. For instance, in ballads, fellows, thrilling, dollar, and bullet, there is a short vowel in front of the <ll>, and it is always the vowel sound that it looks as if it should be: In ballads there is a short <\mathrm{a}>; in fellows there is a short <e>; in thrilling and dollar, a short <\mathrm{i}> and short <o>; in bullet a short <oo>, [\dot{\mathrm{u}}].

But read the following words aloud. Pay special attention to the vowel sound in front of the <ll> in each one. If you are not sure how to pronounce any of them, look them up in the dictionary or ask your teacher for some help. Sometimes right in front of the <ll> you should hear the short <\mathrm{a}> sound, [a], that the spelling suggests, but sometimes you should hear the short <o> sound, [o]. Remember: Short <\mathrm{a}> is the vowel you hear in hat. Short <o> is the vowel you hear in hot. Mark the vowel sound in front of the <ll>, as we have done with stalled.

& \text{stalled} && \text{tallest } && \text{eyeballs } && \text{befallen} \\& \  [o] && \ [o] &&  \quad \ [o] && \ \ [o] \\\\& \text{stallions } && \text{tallied } && \text{ balladist } && \text{fallacies } \\&  \ [a] && \ [a]  && \ [a] && \ [a] \\\\& \text{allies} && \text{allergies} && \text{recalling} && \text{hallowed} \\& [a] && [a] && \quad [o] && \ [a] \\\\& \text{halls} && \text{overalls} && \text{callousness} && \text{valley} \\& \ [o] && \quad \ [a] && \ [a] && \ [a] \\\\& \text{appalled} && \text{alligators} && \text{malling} && \text{shallowness} \\& \quad \ [o] && [a] && \ [o] && \quad [a] \\& \text{challenge} && \text{balloting} && \text{galleries} && \text{smallest} \\& \quad [a] && \ [a] && \ [a] && \quad [o]

2. Each of the twenty-four words contains a free stem plus a suffix. Analyze each one:

Word = Free Stem + Suffix Word = Free Stem + Suffix
stalled = stall + ed eyeballs = eyeball + s
stallions = stallion + s balladist = ballad + ist
allies = all\cancel{y}+ i + es recalling = recall + ing
halls = hall + s callousness = callous + ous
appalled = appal + l + ed malling = mall + ing
or appall + ed
challenger = challeng\cancel{e} + er galleries = galler\cancel{y} + i + es
tallest = tall + est befallen = befall + en
tallied = tall\cancel{y} + i + ed fallacies = fallac\cancel{y}+ i + es
allergies = allerg\cancel{y}+ i + es hallowed = hallowed + ed
overalls = overall + s valleys = valley + s
alligators = alligator + s shallowness = shallow + ness
balloting = ballot + ing smallest = small + est

3. Now look at the twenty-four free stems you just found in your analysis. Sort them into this matrix:

Free stems with the <all>...
at the end not at the end
Free stems with [a] before <ll>

stallion

ally

challenger

tally

allergy

alligator

ballot

balladist

callous

gallery

fallacy

hallow

valley

shallow

Free stems with [o] before <ll>

stall

hall

appal(l)

tall

overall

eyeball

recall

mall

befall

small

4. When the letters <ll> come at the end of a free stem, an <\mathrm{a}> before them will spell <o> . When the <ll> comes at the front or in the middle of a free stem, an <\mathrm{a}> before it will spell \underline{<a>}.

Teaching Notes.

Item 3. It is important that the students notice such pairs as stall vs. stallion, with the [o] vs. [a] distinction. Other such pairs in the matrix are hall, hallow; tall, tally;(re)call, callous; (be)fall, fallacy.

Item 2. Appa/has two accepted spellings: appal and appall.

For more on the sounds of <\mathrm{a}> before <ll>, see AES, pp. 442-43 (section 32.2.2.4).

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1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5

Date Created:

Feb 23, 2012

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Apr 29, 2014
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