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11.3: Summary of Final < e > Deletion in Ve# Stems

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12
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Summary of Final <e> Deletion in Ve# Stems

1. Below you are given stems ending in Ve # and suffixes to be added to them to make new words. Be sure your analysis shows any changes as we have done with the first one:

Stem + Suffix = Analysis = Word
lie + ing = l\begin{align*}\cancel{i}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + y + ing = lying
agree + able = agree + able = agreeable
canoe + ist = canoe + ist = canoeist
die + ing = d\begin{align*}\cancel{i}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + y + ing = dying
free + est = fre\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*}+ est = freest
hoe + ing = hoe + ing = hoeing
die + ed = di\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*}+ ed = died
guarantee + ing = guarantee + ing = guaranteeing
toe + ed = to\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*}+ ed = toed
tie + er = ti\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*}+ er = tier
free + ed = fre\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*}+ ed = freed
canoe + ed = cano\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*}+ ed = canoed

2. Add the following Ve# stems and suffixes to make words. In your analysis show any changes that take place:

Stem + Suffix = Analysis = word
argue + ing = argu\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + ing = arguing
glue + s = glue + s = glues
vie + ed = vi\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + ed = vied
rescue + er = rescu\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + er = rescuer
sue + ed = su\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + ed = sued
free + ly = free + ly = freely
value + able = valu\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + able = valuable
referee + ed = refere\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + ed = refereed
vie + ing = v\begin{align*}\cancel{i}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + y + ing = vying
issue + ed = issu\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + ed = issued
eye + ed = ey\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + ed = eyed
tiptoe + ed = tipto\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + ed = tiptoed
blue + ing = blu\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + ing = bluing
tie + ing = t\begin{align*}\cancel{i}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + y + ing = tying
see + ing = see + ing = seeing
true + est = tru\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + est = truest

3. When you add a suffix that starts with a vowel to a stem that ends <ue>, do you delete the final <e>? Yes

4. Original Final <e> Deletion Rule. You delete a final <e> that marks a soft <c> or soft <g> only when you add a suffix that begins with the letters <e>, \begin{align*}\underline{<i>}\end{align*} , or <y>; you delete all other silent final <e>s whenever you add a suffix that starts with any vowel.

5. Most Ve # words follow the Final <e> Deletion Rule, but there are three special cases:

(a) When you add a suffix that starts with \begin{align*}<\mathrm{i}>\end{align*} to a stem that ends <ie>, you delete the final <e> and change the \begin{align*}\underline{<i>}\end{align*} to <y>.

(b) When you add a suffix that starts with the letters \begin{align*}\underline{<a>}\end{align*} or \begin{align*}\underline{<i>}\end{align*} to a stem that ends <ee>, you do not delete the final <e>.

(c) When you add a suffix that starts with the vowel \begin{align*}\underline{<i>}\end{align*} to a stem that ends <oe>, you do not delete the final <e>.

6. There are only about twelve words that raise the three complications we've listed above. It isn't worth making our rule long and hard-to-remember just to account for a dozen or so words. But we can keep our revision of the rule fairly simple by revising it to something like this:

Final Final <e> Deletion Rule: You delete a final <e> that marks a soft <c> or soft <g> only when you add a suffix that begins with the letters <e>, \begin{align*}\underline{<i>}\end{align*}, or <y> ;and except for a few words with stems that end <ee>, <ie>, or <oe>, you delete all other silent final <e>'s whenever you add a suffix that starts with any vowel.

That little bit of a change keeps our rule honest without making it so long and complicated that it is hard to remember. All you have to do is keep those few stems that end <ee>, <ie>, or <oe> in mind - and that isn't too hard since if you try deleting the final <e> in words like toeing and seeing and forseeable, you get such funny-looking spellings that you would probably notice them anyhow.

Teaching Notes.

Items 1 -2. Notice that in words like agreeable and guaranteeing, if the final <e> were deleted, we would get *agreable and *guaranteing. Just as <e> deletion in a word like toeing would lead to what looks like a digraph of [oi], <e> deletion in agreeable and guaranteeing would lead to what looks like digraph spellings <ea> and <ei>, thus complicating pronouncing the words.

Item 2. Arguing can raise questions about the irregular final <e> deletion before a consonant in argument. Argument was adopted in the \begin{align*}14^{\mathrm{th}}\end{align*} century from the Old French argument, which in turn descended from the Latin argumentum. It entered English before the convention of insulating word-final \begin{align*}<\mathrm{u}>\end{align*} with silent final <e>. So although we analyze it to argu\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*}+ment, even though historically there never was an <e> after the \begin{align*}<\mathrm{u}>\end{align*} in argument to be deleted. There are very few cases of <e> deletion before consonants, the other only known cases being awful (aw\begin{align*}\cancel{\mathrm{e}}\end{align*} + ful), duly (du\begin{align*}\cancel{\mathrm{e}}\end{align*} + ly), truly (tru\begin{align*}\cancel{\mathrm{e}}\end{align*} + ly).

Like other stems that end <ue>, glue is regular, deleting the final <e> before vowels: glued, gluing, gluer But when it adds -y the <e> is not deleted: glue +y = gluey, not *gluy. Further, when a suffix is added to gluey, in addition to the normal change of <y> to \begin{align*}<\mathrm{i}>\end{align*} , there is an odd deletion of the <e>, even though it is not final in the stem gluey, gluey + est = glu\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\cancel{y}\end{align*} + i + est = gluiest, not *glueiest.

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