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12.12: The Prefix Dis- and Assimilation

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12
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The Prefix Dis- and Assimilation

1. The prefix dis- has many meanings, some of which are hard to see in some of the words in which it occurs. But usually dis- has a negative meaning - such as “not” or “reversal” - as in like vs. dislike, or appear vs.disappear. Usually dis- combines with its stem through simple addition. Sometimes if the stem starts with <f>, dis- assimilates to dif-:dis + fer = di\begin{align*}\cancel{s}\end{align*} + f + fer=differ. But in some stems that start with <f> the \begin{align*}<\mathrm{s}>\end{align*} in dis- does not assimilate: dis + favor = disfavor. And in some words the dis- assimilates partially, to di-: dis + gest = di\begin{align*}\cancel{s}\end{align*} + gest = digest.

Analyze each of the following words into prefix and stem. In some words the prefix and stem combine by simple addition. In some the dis- has assimilated fully to dif-, and in some it has assimilated partially to di-. Be sure to show any assimilations that take place:

Word = Prefix + Stem
digestion = di\begin{align*}\cancel{s}\end{align*} + gestion
director = di\begin{align*}\cancel{s}\end{align*} + rector
disrupting = dis + rupting
dimension = di\begin{align*}\cancel{s}\end{align*} + mension
disclosing = dis + closing
dismounted = dis + mounted
diseases = dis + eases
division = di\begin{align*}\cancel{s}\end{align*} + vision
directions = di\begin{align*}\cancel{s}\end{align*} + rections
dividing = di\begin{align*}\cancel{s}\end{align*} + viding

2. Each of the following four dis- words has the same base as the three words in the right-hand column. Analyze each dis-word into its prefix and stem, showing any assimilation:

Word = Prefix + Stem Related Words
districts = di\begin{align*}\cancel{s}\end{align*} + stricts restrict, constrictor, strictly
distant = di\begin{align*}\cancel{s}\end{align*} + stant constant, instant, substantial
distracted = dis + traded attraction, subtract, tractor
distresses = di\begin{align*}\cancel{s}\end{align*} + stresses unstressful, overstressed, stressing

What are the four bases with which you just worked?

\begin{align*}& strict && stant && tract && stress\end{align*}

3. Combine the following elements to make new words. In the “Any assimilation?” column indicate whether or not any prefixes assimilated when the elements combined to form the word:

Elements = Word Any assimilation?
com + tract + or + s = contractors Yes
un + ad + tract + ive + ly = unattractively Yes
un + dis + rect + ed = undirected Yes
dis + in + fect + ant = disinfectant No
dis + re + spect + ful + ly = disrespectfully No
in + dis + gest + ible = indigestible Yes
abs + tract + ly = abstractly No
dis + tract + ions = distractions No
un + re + strict + ed = unrestricted No
in + sub + stant + ial = insubstantial No
dis + vise + ible = divisible Yes
dis + close + ing = disclosing No

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Grades:
1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5
Date Created:
Feb 23, 2012
Last Modified:
Jul 07, 2015
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CK.ENG.ENG.TE.1.Basic-Speller.12.12