# 12.16: Sometimes [g] is Spelled < gg >

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12

## Sometimes [g] is Spelled <gg>

1. Sometimes [g] is spelled <gg> because the prefix ad- has assimilated to ag-before a stem that starts with <g>, as in aggression . Sometimes [g] is spelled <gg> because of twinning, as in druggist . Sometimes [g] is spelled <gg> because of the VCC pattern, as in stagger . Each of the following words contains a <gg> spelling of [g] because of one of the above reasons. Analyze the words that in which the <gg> is due to assimilation or twinning to show where the <gg> comes from. For words in which the <gg> is due to the VCC pattern, just write ‘VCC’ in the Analysis column:

Word = Analysis
jogger = jog + g + er
shrugged = shrug + g + ed
aggression = a\begin{align*}\cancel{d}\end{align*} + g + gression
luggage = lug + g + age
snuggies = snug + g + \begin{align*}\cancel{y}\end{align*} + i + es
aggravate = a\begin{align*}\cancel{d}\end{align*} + g + gravate
waterlogged = waterlog + g + ed
maggot = VCC
reggae = VCC
baggage = bag + g + age
toboggan = VCC
bowlegged = bowleg + g + ed
debugging = debug + g + ing
jiggish = jig + g + ish
draggy = drag + g + y

2. Now sort the fifteen words into these three groups:

Words with [g] spelled <gg> because of . . .
Assimilation Twinning VCC
aggression jogger bowlegged maggot
aggravate shrugged debugging reggae
luggage jiggish toboggan
snuggies draggy
waterlogged
baggage

3. In earlier lessons you've seen that when a consonant sound has <le> right after it, the two patterns VCle and VCCle come into play:

VCle Pattern with a Long Vowel VCCle Pattern with a Short Vowel
gable gabble
rifle riffle
ruble rubble
idle riddle

4. There are some [g] words with the VCle and VCCle patterns. Mark the VCle and VCCle patterns in the following words:

\begin{align*}& \text{jiggle} && \text{bugle} && \text{jungle} && \text{bedraggled}\\ & \ vccle && \ vcle && \ vccle && \qquad \ {vccle}\\ \\ & \text{joggle} && \text{smuggle} && \text{angle} && \text{single}\\ & \ vccle && \quad \ {vccle} && vccle && \ vccle\\ \\ & \text{struggle} && \text{wriggle} && \text{ogle} && \text{boondoggle}\\ & \quad {vccle} && \quad {vccle} && vcle && \qquad \ \ {vccle}\end{align*}

5. Now sort the words into this matrix:

Words with [g] spelled . . .
<g> <gg>
Words with a short vowel sound before the [g]

jungle

angle

single

jiggle

joggle

struggle

smuggle

wriggle

bedraggled

boondoggle

Words with a long vowel sound before the [g]

bugle

ogle

5. In words with a [g] followed by <le>, the [g] will be spelled <gg> if it has ashort vowel in front of it; if it has a long vowel or a consonant in front of it, it will bespelled <g>.

Teaching Notes.

Item 1. The only known instances of <gg> due to simple addition are doggerel anddoggone, which is probably a eupemism for Goddamned. Compare it with dadgum,dadblamed, gosh darned.

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