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Review of Elements: Prefixes, Bases, and Suffixes

1. Elements are the smallest parts that add meaning to written words. For instance, repainted contains three elements: re + paint + ed. The element re- at the front of the word adds the meaning “again.” The element -ed at the end of the word adds the meaning “in the past” or “action completed.” The element paint in the middle of the word gives the word its basic meaning, “paint.”

Elements like re- at the front of words are called prefixes. Elements like -ed at the end of words are called suffixes. And elements like paint that give the word its basic meaning are called bases.

Bases like paint that can stand free as separate words are called free bases. But many bases cannot stand free as words — for instance, the base cept occurs in words like reception, perception, concept, intercept, and accept, but we do not have a word spelled <cept>, so cept is not a free base. Bases like cept that cannot stand free as separate words are called bound bases.

2. Each of the following words contains three elements - a prefix up front, a freen base in the middle, and a suffix at the end. Analyze each word into its three elements as we have done with repainted:

Word = Prefix + Free Base + Suffix
repainted = re + paint + ed
unlucky = un + luck + y
informer = in + form + er
overcooked = over + cook + ed
restriction = re + strict + ion
preschooler = pre + school + er
undoubted = un + doubt + ed
disclaimer = dis + claim + er
exactness = ex + act + ness
mistakes = mis + take + s
requested = re + quest + ed
misjudges = mis + judge + s

3. All of the words you just analyzed contained free bases that could stand alone as separate words. But there are many bases that cannot stand alone as separate words. Before these bound bases can stand free as words, they must have other elements added to them. Each of the following words contains a prefix, a bound base, and a suffix. Analyze each word into its three elements as we have done with addiction:

Word = Prefix + Free Base + Suffix
addiction = ad + dict + ion
abruptly = ab + rupt + ly
products = pro + duct + s
instructor = in + struct + or
completeness = com + plete + ness
compliment = com + pli + ment
reception = re + cept + ion
perfected = per + fect + ed
recruiter = re + cruit + er
commits = com + mit + s
repeating = re + peat + ing
exceeded = ex + ceed + ed

4. a. The smallest parts that add meaning to written words are called elements.

b. Elements that are added to the front of words are called prefixes.

c. Elements that are added to the end of words are called suffixes.

d. Elements that give the basic meaning to words are called bases.

e. Bases that can stand free as words are called free bases.

f. Bases that cannot stand free as words are called bound bases.

Teaching Notes.

Item 1. Elements, free bases, and suffixes are introduced in Book 1, Lesson 28. Prefixes are introduced in Book 2, Lesson 40. Bound bases are introduced Book 3, Lesson 43.

Item 3. The bound base pli in compliment is related to the base ply in comply. It carries the root meaning “fill.”

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Feb 23, 2012

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Apr 29, 2014
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