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Review of Stems and Simple Addition

1. If we start with the word repainted and take away the prefix re-, we have the base and suffix left, painted. But if we start with the word repainted and take away the suffix -ed, we have the prefix and base left, repaint. In either case, the part that we have left after we take away the prefix or suffix is called the stem. The stem is whatever we have left when we take away prefixes or suffixes. Notice that what the stem is in a word depends on what we are taking away from the word.

A stem always has to contain at least one base. It may or may not contain prefixes or suffixes, but it always must contain a base. A free stem can stand free as a separate word; a bound stem cannot.

We also use the word stem to refer to the base plus any other elements to which we are going to add a prefix or a suffix. So if we wanted to add the meaning “in the past” to the verb repaint, we could add the suffix -ed to the stem repaint. And if we wanted to add the meaning “again” to the verb painted, we could add the prefix re- to the stem painted.

2. Analyze each of the following words into prefix or suffix and stem as directed in the Formula column. Some of the stems will be free and some will be bound:

Word Formula Analysis
disclaimer Prefix + stem dis + claimer
disclaimer Stem + suffix disclaim + er
instructor Prefix + stem in + structor
instructor Stem + suffix instruct + or
reduction Prefix + stem re + duction
reduction Stem + suffix reduct + ion
overcooked Prefix + stem over + cooked
overcooked Stem + suffix overcook + ed
perfected Prefix + stem per + fected
perfected Stem + suffix perfect + ed
preschooler Prefix + stem pre + schooler
preschooler Stem + suffix preschool + er

3. Usually when elements combine to make new words, they simply add together, with no change in spelling. This process is called simple addition, and the Rule of Simple Addition is the biggest, simplest, and most important spelling rule:

The Rule of Simple Addition. Unless you know some special reason formaking a change, when you add two elements together to spell a word,simply add them together and don't make any changes in their spelling.

4. Below you are given some elements – prefixes, bases (both free ones and bound ones), and suffixes. Combine them to make words. They all combine by simple addition:

Elements = Word
dis + claim + er = disclaimer
ab + rupt + ly = abruptly
phys + ic + s = physics
re + cept + acle + s = receptacles
intro + duct + ion + s = introductions
re + cept + ion + ist = receptionist
sub + ject + ive + ly = subjectively
re + com + mend + er = recommender
un + doubt + ed + ly = undoubtedly
per + fect + ion + ist + s = perfectionists
in + ex + act + ly = inexactly
pro + duct + ion = production

5. a. Usually when elements combine to make words, they go together by simple addition. A stem always contains at least one base. Two things that can be either free or bound are bases and stems.

Teaching Notes.

Item 1. Stems and free stems are introduced in Book 3, Lesson 5, bound stems in Book 3, Lesson 43.

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Feb 23, 2012

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Apr 29, 2014
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