Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12

1. Sometimes -ion is added to a bound stem that is closely related to a verb. For instance, in satisfaction -ion is added to the bound stem satisfact. And satisfact is closely related to the verb satisfy: When you are satisfied, you feel satisfaction.

In the table below analyze each of the nouns into a bound stem plus -ion. Then in the Related Verb column write in the verb. To help you with the correct spelling, the related verbs are all listed here so that all you have to do is find each one and write it into its proper blank in the Related Verb column:

\begin{align*}&\text{admit} && \text{decide} && \text{explode} && \text{permit} && \text{repeat}\\ &\text{apprehend} && \text{describe} && \text{extend} && \text{receive} && \text{satisfy}\\ &\text{commit} && \text{divide} && \text{introduce} && \text{recognize} && \text{suspect}\end{align*}

Noun Analysis: Bound stem + suffix Related Verb
satisfaction satisfact + ion satisfy
decision decis(e) + ion decide
repetition repetit + ion repeat
introduction introduct + ion introduce
extension extens(e) + ion extend
description descript + ion describe
commission com miss + ion commit
division divis(e) + ion divide
recognition recognit + ion recognize
apprehension apprehens + ion apprehend
explosion explos + ion explode
permission permiss + ion permit
suspicion suspic(e) + ion suspect

2. You have seen that the suffix -ion is often added to verbs that end with the suffix -ate, as in educate, education, and legislate, legislation. Because so many nouns end in <ation> people began to use -ation as a single suffix for forming nouns. Often the -ation is added to a verb. Analyze the nouns below into verb plus -ation, showing any changes that occur:

Noun = Verb + Suffix
admiration = admir\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + ation
civilization = civiliz\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + ation
determination = determin\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + ation
examination = examin\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + ation
information = inform + ation
limitation = limit + ation
observation = observ\begin{align*}\cancel{\mathrm{e}}\end{align*} + ation
recommendation = recommend + ation

3. Like -ion, -ation is also sometimes added to a bound stem, usually one that is closely related to a verb. Analyze each of the following nouns into a bound stem plus -ation. Then for each noun other than indignation fill in the related verb. Again, the related verbs are listed below:

\begin{align*}&\text{acclaim} && \text{explain} && \text{reveal}\\ &\text{apply} && \text{occupy}\\ &\text{exclaim} && \text{proclaim}\end{align*}

Noun Analysis: Bound stem + suffix Related Verb
acclamation acclam + ation acclaim
occupation occup + ation occupy
application applic + ation apply
proclamation proclam + ation proclaim
revelation revel + ation reveal
explanation explan + ation explain
exclamation exclam + ation exclaim
indignation indign + ation

4. The double suffix -ation is often added to verbs and bound stems to make nouns.

Teaching Notes.

Item 1. The bases in five of the bound stems in this table actually end with a silent final <e> that must be deleted when -ion is added: (i) decision contains the base cise “cut”, which also occurs in concise; (ii) repetition contains petite “seek”, which also occurs in appetite; (iii) extension contains tense “stretch” as in intense; (iv) division contains the bound base vise “separate,” as in devise; (v) suspicion contains spice “look at,” as in auspice. (Auspice analyzes to au + spice, the base au “bird” being a form of our base av as in avian and aviary. The Latin source word for auspice referred to divination and prophecy based on watching the flight of birds.) You can decide whether to require your students to hold to the letter of the law and show the <e> deletions in their analyses or to allow them simple additions, on the grounds that these are pretty subtle relationships, as between suspicion and auspice, for instance. One strategy would be to have the students work the table on their own, assuming that most of them will choose simpleaddition for the five listed above. Then you might point out, for instance, that division is closely related to devise and ask how that knowledge suggests an analysis other than divis + ion?

The bases in three of the bound stems look as if they could well end with a silent final <e>: recognit, apprehens, explos. However, there are no known instances of words ending in these bases and thus requiring the final <e>. In the spirit of keeping procedures as simple as possible, we assume simple addition here rather than final <e> deletion.

Item 2. The criterion for deciding that these nouns all take -ation rather than -ion is that there are no intermediate <ate> forms: We have, say, admire and admiration, but no *admirate. Of course, the language is ever changing and intermediate forms in <ate> may well come into use.

Item 3. Today we no longer have a verb spelled <indign>. The OED lists an obsolete indign, last cited in the \begin{align*}17^\mathrm{th}\end{align*} century, which meant “to treat with indignity; to resent.” The OED offers this intriguing citation: “Diana, indigning this insolency, raised up a scorpion, that slew him.”

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