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14.17: Where and When [sh] is Spelled < t >

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12

Where and When [sh] is Spelled <t>

1. Is [sh] ever spelled <t> at the beginning of a word? No Is [sh] ever spelled <t> at the end of a word? No

2. Here are some words in which [sh] is spelled <t>. In each word mark the two letters following the <t> that spells [sh], either ‘\mathrm{v}’ or ‘\mathrm{c}’ for vowel or consonant, as we have done with ambition:

&\text{ambition}  && \text{partial} && \text{contribution} && \text{indignation}\\&\quad \text{vv} && \quad \text{vv} && \quad \text{vv} && \quad \text{vv}\\&\text{association} && \text{quotient} && \text{repetition} && \text{constitution}\\&\quad \text{vv} && \quad \text{vv} && \quad \text{vv} && \quad \text{vv}\\&\text{conventions} && \text{proportion} && \text{affectionately} && \text{restrictions}\\&\quad \text{vv} && \quad \text{vv} && \quad \text{vv} && \quad \text{vv}\\&\text{fractions} && \text{subtraction} && \text{prescription} && \text{quotation}\\&\quad \text{vv} && \quad \text{vv}  && \quad \text{vv}\\&\text{deletion} && \text{impatience} && \text{reception} && \text{immigration}\\&\quad \text{vv} && \quad \text{vv} && \quad \text{vv} && \quad \text{vv}

3. You should have found that in every word there was always the same pattern following the <t>. Was it CC, CV, W, or VC? VV

4. Whenever <t> spells [sh] it is always followed by two vowels. The vowel right after the <t> is always the same one. What is it? \underline{<i>}

5. Whenever [sh] is spelled <t>, the <t> is always followed by two vowels, and the first of the two vowels is always an <\mathrm{i}> . That pattern explains why <t> spells [t] in the first word in each of the following pairs but it spells [sh] in the second word:

<t> spells [t] <t> spells [sh]
native n\acute{\mathrm{a}}tion
receptive rec\acute{\mathrm{e}}ption
parting p\acute{\mathrm{a}}rtial
deleted del\acute{\mathrm{e}}tion
immigrated immigr\acute{\mathrm{a}}tion
fractal fr\acute{\mathrm{a}}ction
affecting aff\acute{\mathrm{e}}ction

6. In the words in the right column above is the <t> always followed by an <\mathrm{i}> and another vowel? Yes In the words in the left column is the <t> ever followed by an <\mathrm{i}> and another vowel? No

7. In the right column what sound does <t> spell? [sh] In the left column what sound does <t> spell? [t]

8. In each of the words in the right column, mark the vowel that has heavy stress, as we have done with nation. Does the <\mathrm{i}> and the next vowel after the <t> that spells [sh] ever have heavy stress on it? No

When [sh] is spelled <t>, the two vowels after the <t> will always be unstressed.

9. In each of the following words [sh] is spelled <t> and each one ends with the suffix -ion. Analyze each word into its stem and -ion, showing any changes that occurred when the stem and suffix combined. Most of the stems are free, but one is bound. Be sure to show any final <e> deletions:

Word = Stem + Suffix -ion
legislatio = legislat\cancel{e} + ion
indication = indicat\cancel{e}+ ion
calculation = calculat\cancel{e}+ ion
restriction = restrict + ion
contribution = contribut\cancel{e}+ ion
appreciation = appreciat\cancel{e}+ ion
precaution = precaut + ion

Teaching Notes.

As was said in the Teaching Notes to Lesson 40, the trigger here is the unstressed <\mathrm{i}> following the <t>: When the <\mathrm{i}> is followed by another unstressed vowel, the <\mathrm{i}> tends to simplify to a [y]-glide. Articulating a [y]-glide tends to pull the tongue back to the palate, which leads to [tsh] and ultimately [sh]. The sequence is [ti] > [ty] > [tsh] > [sh]. There are a very few holdouts worth mentioning:

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Date Created:

Feb 23, 2012

Last Modified:

Jul 07, 2015
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