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14.5: Lesson Twenty-nine

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The Suffixes -al, -ial, and -ual

1. We have two suffixes spelled <al>. One -al changes verbs to nouns: renew + al = renewal. The other -al changes nouns and bound bases into adjectives: incident + al = incidental and capit + al = capital. Analyze each of the following words into its stem plus -al. Show any changes that took place when the stem and suffix combined. Then answer the questions in the two right hand columns:

Original Word Analysis: Stem + Suffix Is the original word a noun, or is it an adjective, or is it oth? Is the stem a noun, or is it a verb, or is it bound?
survival surviv\cancel{e}+ al Noun Verb
dismissal dismiss + al Noun Verb
principal princip + al Both Bound
physical physic + al Both Noun
occasional occasion + al Adjective Noun
trial tr\cancel{y} + i + al Noun Verb
referral refer + r + al Noun Verb
natural natur\cancel{e} + al Both Noun
professional profession + al Noun Noun
refusal refus\cancel{e}+ al Noun Verb
agricultural agricultur\cancel{e} + al Adjective Noun
arrival arriv\cancel{e} + al Noun Verb

2. The suffix -al that changes nouns and bound stems to adjectives has two other forms, -ial and -ual. We will look at the reasons for these two forms later, but for now we will just analyze some adjectives that contain them, in order to get used to seeing and hearing them. Analyze each of the following adjectives into a stem plus either -ial or -ual, showing any changes that took place when the stem and suffix combined. Then answer the question in the right hand column

Adjective = Stem + Suffix Is the stem a noun, or is it bound?
actual = act + ual Noun
eventual = event + ual Noun
presidential = president + ial Noun
commercial = commerc\cancel{e} + ial Noun
financial = financ\cancel{e} + ial Noun
editorial = editor + ial Noun
intellectual = intellect + ual Noun
racial = rac\cancel{e} + ial Noun
official = offic\cancel{e} + ial Noun
usual = us\cancel{e} + ual Noun
individual = individ\cancel{e} + ual Bound
annual = ann + ual Bound
spiritual = spirit + ual Noun
essential = essent + ial Bound
celestial = celest + ial Bound

Teaching Notes.

Item 2. Act, finance, and use can serve also as verbs. The bound stem individe contains the free stem divide.

The suffixes -ial and -ual will be discussed in the treatment of [sh] in lessons 40-42 in this book and in treatment of [j] in Book 8, Lesson 32, and in the treatment of [ch] in Book 8, Lesson 40.

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Feb 23, 2012

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Apr 29, 2014
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