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14.6: The Suffixes Spelled < ly >

Created by: CK-12

The Suffixes Spelled <ly>

1. Each of the italicized words below is either an adjective or a noun. Write ‘Adjective’ or ‘Noun’ in the blank at the end of each sentence, depending on what the italicized word is:

  1. Christine is her very best friend. Noun
  2. She's a very friendly person. Adjective
  3. The store just sent us our monthly bill. Adjective
  4. I thought we paid them off last month. Noun
  5. Their dog started howling again last night. Noun
  6. But its howling has become a nightly event. Adjective
  7. Her father just got up and left. Noun
  8. That's not a very fatherly thing to do. Adjective

2. The four adjectives you just identified all end with the suffix -ly that has been added to a noun: friend, a noun, becomes friendly, an adjective. There is another suffix that is spelled <ly>. This second suffix -ly changes adjectives to adverbs.

In the sentence They are bold fighters, bold is an adjective modifying the noun fighters.

In the sentence They fought boldly, boldly is an adverb modifying the verb fought.

Adverbs come in many different kinds and do many different things, but for now we are interested in just the ones that are made by adding the suffix -ly to an adjective. Adverbs that end in -ly usually modify verbs, like the adverb boldly in the sentence They fought boldly. And usually adverbs modify verbs by answering the question, How? How did they fight? They fought boldly.

3. Analyze each of the following adverbs into an adjective plus the suffix -ly

Adverb = Adjective + Suffix
boldly = bold + ly
solemnly = solemn + ly
correctly = correct + ly
immediately = immediate + ly
equally = equal + ly
slightly = slight + ly
regularly = regular + ly
exactly = exact + ly
occasionally = occasional + ly
angrily = angr\cancel{y} + i + ly
accidentally = accidental + ly
joyfully = joyful + ly
necessarily = necessar\cancel{y} + i + ly
sufficiently = sufficient + ly
approximately = approximat\cancel{e} + ly

4. In the table below you can use one or more of the following suffixes to change each noun into an adjective: -al, -ate, -ful, -less, -ous, -ual, -y. Write the adjective in the Adjective column. Then in the Adverb column change each adjective into an adverb. Watch out for changes that occur when you add the suffixes:

Noun Adjective Adverb
accident accidental accidentally
act actual actually
care careless, careful carelessly, carefully
faith faithful, faithless faithfully, faithlessly
fortune fortunate, fortuneless fortunately
fury furious furiously
haste hasty hastily
heart hearty, heartless heartily, heartlessly
joy joyous, joyful, joyless joyously, joyfully, joylessly
occasion occasional occasionally
origin original originally
person personal, personate personally, personately
success successful, successless successfully, successlessly
thought thoughtful, thoughtless thoughtfully, thoughtlessly
use useful, useless, usual usefully, uselessly, usually

Teaching Notes.

Item 1. Nouns are introduced in Book 2, Lesson 24, adjectives in Book 4, Lesson 3.

Item 3. Be sure the students get the double <l>'s in the adverbs joyfully, accidentally, occasionally, and equally- one <l> from -al, one from -ly.

Item 4. We ask the students for only one adjective and adverb for each noun, but some nouns can take more than one of the given suffixes to form different adjectives. The listing in the table above is fairly exhaustive. There is apparently no adverb fortunelessly, though its meaning is clear and it may well become used at any time. The adjective personate is from botany and zoology. There may well be other adjectives and adverbs that are not given above: The language changes, and dictionaries don't always agree. My personal criterion is, “If you can find it in a respected dictionary, it's a word.”

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Date Created:

Feb 23, 2012

Last Modified:

Jan 27, 2015
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