1. Each of the italicized words below is either an adjective or a noun. Write ‘Adjective’ or ‘Noun’ in the blank at the end of each sentence, depending on what the italicized word is:
Christine is her very best friend. Noun
She's a very friendly person. Adjective
The store just sent us our monthly bill. Adjective
I thought we paid them off last month. Noun
Their dog started howling again last night. Noun
But its howling has become a nightly event. Adjective
Her father just got up and left. Noun
That's not a very fatherly thing to do. Adjective
2. The four adjectives you just identified all end with the suffix -ly that has been added to a noun: friend, a noun, becomes friendly, an adjective. There is another suffix that is spelled <ly>. This second suffix -ly changes adjectives to adverbs.
In the sentence They are bold fighters, bold is an adjective modifying the noun fighters.
In the sentence They fought boldly, boldly is an adverb modifying the verb fought.
Adverbs come in many different kinds and do many different things, but for now we are interested in just the ones that are made by adding the suffix -ly to an adjective. Adverbs that end in -ly usually modify verbs, like the adverb boldly in the sentence They fought boldly. And usually adverbs modify verbs by answering the question, How? How did they fight? They fought boldly.
3. Analyze each of the following adverbs into an adjective plus the suffix -ly
= angry + i
= necessary+ i
4. In the table below you can use one or more of the following suffixes to change each noun into an adjective: -al, -ate, -ful, -less, -ous, -ual, -y. Write the adjective in the Adjective column. Then in the Adverb column change each adjective into an adverb. Watch out for changes that occur when you add the suffixes:
joyous, joyful, joyless
joyously, joyfully, joylessly
useful, useless, usual
usefully, uselessly, usually
Item 1. Nouns are introduced in Book 2, Lesson 24, adjectives in Book 4, Lesson 3.
Item 3. Be sure the students get the double <l>'s in the adverbs joyfully, accidentally, occasionally, and equally- one <l> from -al, one from -ly.
Item 4. We ask the students for only one adjective and adverb for each noun, but some nouns can take more than one of the given suffixes to form different adjectives. The listing in the table above is fairly exhaustive. There is apparently no adverb fortunelessly, though its meaning is clear and it may well become used at any time. The adjective personate is from botany and zoology. There may well be other adjectives and adverbs that are not given above: The language changes, and dictionaries don't always agree. My personal criterion is, “If you can find it in a respected dictionary, it's a word.”