1. The suffix -ed adds the meanings “in the past” and “action completed” to verbs:
They cooked the turkey yesterday. (-ed = “in the past”)
The turkey is already cooked, (-ed = “action completed”)
The suffix -ing adds to verbs the meanings “right now, in the present” and “action still going on, action not yet completed.”
They are cooking the turkey right now. (-ing = “in the preesent”)
The turkey was cooking but now it's cooked. (-ing = “action not yet completed”; -ed= “action completed.”)
Using -ed to mean the two things it means makes sense, because if something is in the past, probably it is completed, and if it is now completed, it must have happened in the past. Be ready to discuss this question: Why does it make sense to use -ing to mean both “in the present” and “action not yet completed”?
2. Once the suffix -ing with the meaning “action not yet completed” or-ed with the meaning “action completed” is added to a verb, we can use that new word as an adjective. And we can add -ly to that adjective to make an adverb:
In the sentence The puppies entertain us a lot, entertain is a verb.
In the sentence The puppies are very entertaining, entertaining is an adjective modifying puppies.
In The puppies play entertainingly, entertainingly is an adverb modifying the verb play.
We can do the same thing with -ed
In the sentence His habits disgust her, disgust is a verb.
In She is very disgusted by his habits, disgusted is an adjective modifying she.
In She described his habits disgustedly, disgustedly is an adverb modifying the verb described.
3. Analyze each of the following adverbs into a verb plus suffixes. Two of the adverbs have prefixes in front of the verb:
Analysis: Verb + Suffixes
disgust + ed + ly
charm + ing + ly
repeat + ed + ly
surprise+ ing + ly
accord + ing + ly
decide+ ed + ly
hurry+ i + ed + ly
suppose+ ed + ly
exceed + ing + ly
disappoint + ing + ly
4. Combine the following elements to form adverbs. Show any changes that occur when the elements combine:
enter + tain + ing + ly
ad + mit + t + ed + ly
ad + p + prove + ing + ly
sur + prise + ing + ly
un + hurry + ed + ly
inter + est + ed + ly
pro + mise + ing + ly
di + stingu + ish + ed + ly
Item 1. Be sure that the youngsters all see that yesterday signals “in the past” and that right now signals “still going on,” reinforcing the meaning of the respective suffixes -ed and -ing. You might get them to discuss the effect of a mixed sentence like “They are listening to music yesterday,” where the meaning of yesterday clashes with the meaning of the -ing suffix. What is being discussed here is the use of past participles (with -ed) and present participles (with -ing), which are adjectives that are derived directly from verbs. Past participles are introduced in Book 4, Lesson 32.
Item 4. In distinguishedly the prefix di- is a partially assimilated form of dis-. The suffix -ish is a common ending on English verbs borrowed from French: abolish, accomplish, banish, blandish, blemish, brandish, burnish, cherish, demolish, embellish, establish, finish, flourish, furbish, furnish, garnish, impoverish, languish, nourish, perish, polish, punish, ravish, relinquish, replenish, tarnish, vanish, varnish.
This suffix -ish occurs by analogy in some verbs that are not from French: admonish, astonish, diminish, distinguish,, famish, lavish, publish, relish, etc.
This -ish, usually listed in dictionaries as -ish2, is not related to -ish1, which is added to nouns and adjectives to form adjectives: boy, boyish; red, reddish; etc.