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15.18: The Set of Bases duce and duct

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12
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The Set of Bases duce and duct

1. In the set duce, duct, the base duce is bound; the base duct is free. We do not have a word spelled <duce>, but we do have the word duct.

Duce and duct are members of a set and work together in verbs and nouns the way ceive and cept do:

When you reduce something, it's called a reduction.

When you introduce someone, it's called an introduction.

Though it can be hard to see at times, duce and duct add a meaning like “lead, direct” to words: In introduce the prefix intro- means “into, inward,” and when you introduce someone to something, you do lead them into it. The original idea in reduce is one of leading back or leading down and making less.

2. Examine the following pattern and fill in the blanks:

Verbs Nouns Adjectives
deduce deduction deductive
induce induction inductive
seduce seduction seductive
reduce reduction reductive
reproduce reproduction reproductive
produce production productive

In this array verbs take the base duce. Nouns and adjectives take the base duct.

2. As you might expect that pattern, though strong and useful, is more complicated than it is in that array. Combine the following prefixes, bases, and suffixes to form words, showing any changes that take place when the elements combine. In the Part of Speech column show whether each word is a noun, verb, or adjective,:

Elements Word Part of Speech
co\begin{align*}\cancel{\mathrm{m}}\end{align*} + n + duct + ed conducted Verb
de + duct + ion deduction Noun
pro + duct + ive productive Adjective
in + duce + ment inducement Noun
intro + duc\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + ed introdued Verb
intro + duct + ion introduction Noun
pro + duc\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + er producer Noun
pro + duct + iv\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + ity productivity Noun
un + pro + duct + ive unproductive Adjective
mis + co\begin{align*}\cancel{m}\end{align*} + n + duct misconduct Noun
de + duc\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + ible deducible Adjective
de + duct + ible deductible Adjective,Noun
intro + duct + ory introductory Adjective
com + duct + or conductor Noun
com + duc\begin{align*}\cancel{e}\end{align*} + ive conducive Adjective
super + co\begin{align*}\cancel{m}\end{align*}+ n + duct + or superconductor Noun

Teaching Notes.

Item 1. Duct is the free base that refers to a pipe or passageway, usually for the passage of air or liquid. Though they are related the bound base duce is not the same as the Italian word Duce “leader,” pronounced [d\begin{align*}\bar{\mathrm{u}}\end{align*}ch\begin{align*}\bar{\mathrm{a}}\end{align*}], as in Mussolini's title, II Duce.

The story of the sources of the pair duct and duce is similar to that for cept and ceive: Both come from the Latin verb d\begin{align*}\bar{u}\end{align*}cere “draw along, lead, direct.” Our free base duct comes from the past participle form, ductus; our bound base duce comes directly from the infinitive form d\begin{align*}\bar{u}\end{align*}cere.

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Date Created:
Feb 23, 2012
Last Modified:
Jul 07, 2015
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