1. You can hear the sound [j] at the beginning and end of the word judge. Underline the letters that spell [j]. Don't include any silent final <e>'s in your underlining. You should find four different spellings:
3. Look at the words in which [j] is spelled either <g> or <dg>. Sort them into the following three groups:
Words in which the <g> or <dg> is followed by . . .
You should have found that the <g> and <dg> spellings of [j] follow the normal pattern for soft <g>: They are always followed by either <e>, <i>, or <y>. The <dg> spelling is like a double soft <g>: It always has a short vowel in front of it, just as the VCC pattern calls for.
4. When there is a long vowel right in front of the [j], how is the [j] spelled, <g> or <dg>? <g>. When there is a short vowel right in front of the [j], how is the [j] spelled, <g> or <dg>? <dg>. When the [j] is spelled <g>, which letters always follow the <g>? <e>, <i>, or <y> . Does the spelling <j> usually come at the front, in the middle, or at the end of an element? At the front Does <dg> ever come at the front of a word? No
5. The <d> spelling of [j] is very rare. Find the two words from the list above in which [j] is spelled <dj>. Analyze them into prefix plus stem to show where the <dj> comes from:
Word with [j] spelled <dj>
Analysis: Prefix + stem
ad + jective
ad + just
6. Four ways of spelling [j] are <j>, <g>, <dg>, and <dj>.
Item 1. The students are told not to underline any final <e>'s because the <e>'s are not part of the spelling but rather part of the context that makes the <g> spelling possible.
The only known common word in which [j] is spelled <gg> is exaggerate. Its less common free base, agger “a mound; a double tide,” also has the <gg> spelling of [j]. The base agger(ad+ g + ger), “to carry to” carries the root meaning “to pile up.” In exaggerate the prefix ex- is an intensifier, used much the way we use a word like up, as in “She tore the dress up” vs. “She tore the dress.” So the modern meaning of exaggerate echoes its earlier senses: Notice that we still say of someone who is exaggerating that “He is really piling it on.”
Soft <g> is introduced in Lessons 37-39 of Book 3. For more on the spelling of [j] see AES, pp. 417-21.