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16.8: Sometimes [j] is Spelled < d >

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12
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Sometimes [j] is Spelled <d>

1. Another way of spelling [j] is due to the same kind of palatalization that you encountered in the various spellings of [sh]. Underline the letters that spell [j] in the following words:


2. What letter always follows the <d> in these words? <u>

3. Underline the letters that spell [j] in the following three words:


How does the setting in which <d> spells [j] in these three words differ from the setting in part 1 above? These words have <i> or <eu> following the <d> the words in Item 1 <u> following the <d>.

4. Sort the following words into the two groups defined below:


Words in which <d> spells ...
[j] [d]
gradual modulate graded individual
pendulum individual dependent undivided
fraudulently educated defrauded educated
residual aruous resident reduced
proceeded yardage

5. You have worked with five different ways to spell [j]. Write them in the left-hand column below, and in the right-hand column write a word that contains each of the spellings:

Spellings of [j] Words that Contain the Spellings
# 1 <j> judge
# 2 <g> hygiene
# 3 <dg> fudge
# 4 <dj> adjective
# 5 <d> gradual

Teaching Notes.

items 1-3. The extra <u> could raise questions in class. It is not quite right to say that the <u> is put in there to mark the palatalization, because the <u> was there before the palatalization, and actually triggered it. The <u> is there because it was there in Latin. But it is right to say that today the <u> is necessary to mark the setting for the palatalization and thus the <d> spelling of [j].

This also explains the <i> in -ial and the <u> in -ual, two forms of the suffix -al that were discussed in Lesson 29 of Book Seven. It is accurate enough to say that these are two “forms” of -al since the <i> and <u> were added to the basic <al> form. Words that contain -ial or -ual show palatalization if the sound at the end of the stem can be palatalized: actual, partial, sexual, gradual, racial, etc. The only words not not showing palatalization have stems that end in sounds that can't be palatalized: the bilabial [b] in adverbial, for instance, or the [r] in tutorial. In cases without palatalization the <i> and <u> are still pronounced.

Educate is a bit of a curiosity: The palatalization occurs at the front of the base, rather than at the end upon the addition of a suffix. Also educate is related to educe in which the palatalization does not occur. Dictionaries show educe with [u¯] and [yu¯]. It is conceivable that in time the pronunciation with the [y] glide will begin to encourage a palatalized pronunciation of educe, with [j] rather than [d]. It is likely that if such a change were to develop, it would be resisted as “sloppy pronunciation.”

Item 4. Dependent has the variant dependant. The form with <a> came through French; that with <e> came directly from Latin. Notice that independent does not have a variant with <a>, though dependent and pendent do.

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Date Created:
Feb 23, 2012
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Jul 07, 2015
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