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# 16.8: Sometimes [j] is Spelled < d >

Difficulty Level: At Grade Created by: CK-12

## Sometimes [j] is Spelled <d>

1. Another way of spelling [j] is due to the same kind of palatalization that you encountered in the various spellings of [sh]. Underline the letters that spell [j] in the following words:

\begin{align*}&\text{gra\underline{d}ual} && \text{sche\underline{d}ule} && \text{proce\underline{d}ure} && \text{e\underline{d}ucate}\\ &\text{pen\underline{d}ulum} && \text{gra\underline{d}uate} && \text{indivi\underline{d}ual} && \text{ar\underline{d}uous}\\ &\text{frau\underline{d}ulent} && \text{resi\underline{d}ual} && \text{mo\underline{d}ulation} && \text{assi\underline{d}uous}\end{align*}

2. What letter always follows the <d> in these words? \begin{align*}\underline{}\end{align*}

3. Underline the letters that spell [j] in the following three words:

\begin{align*}&\text{cor\underline{d}ial} && \text{gran\underline{d}eur} && \text{sol\underline{d}ier}\end{align*}

How does the setting in which <d> spells [j] in these three words differ from the setting in part 1 above? These words have \begin{align*}{}\end{align*} or <eu> following the <d> the words in Item 1 \begin{align*}{}\end{align*} following the <d>.

4. Sort the following words into the two groups defined below:

\begin{align*}&\text{graded} && \text{fraudulently} && \text{modulate} && \text{educated}\\ &\text{gradual} && \text{defrauded} && \text{proceeded} && \text{reduced}\\ &\text{pendulum} && \text{resident} && \text{individual} && \text{arduous}\\ &\text{dependent} && \text{residual} && \text{undivided} && \text{yardage}\end{align*}

Words in which <d> spells ...
[j] [d]
pendulum individual dependent undivided
fraudulently educated defrauded educated
residual aruous resident reduced
proceeded yardage

5. You have worked with five different ways to spell [j]. Write them in the left-hand column below, and in the right-hand column write a word that contains each of the spellings:

Spellings of [j] Words that Contain the Spellings
# 1 <j> judge
# 2 <g> hygiene
# 3 <dg> fudge

Teaching Notes.

items 1-3. The extra \begin{align*}<\mathrm{u}>\end{align*} could raise questions in class. It is not quite right to say that the \begin{align*}<\mathrm{u}>\end{align*} is put in there to mark the palatalization, because the \begin{align*}<\mathrm{u}>\end{align*} was there before the palatalization, and actually triggered it. The \begin{align*}<\mathrm{u}>\end{align*} is there because it was there in Latin. But it is right to say that today the \begin{align*}<\mathrm{u}>\end{align*} is necessary to mark the setting for the palatalization and thus the <d> spelling of [j].

This also explains the \begin{align*}<\mathrm{i}>\end{align*} in -ial and the \begin{align*}<\mathrm{u}>\end{align*} in -ual, two forms of the suffix -al that were discussed in Lesson 29 of Book Seven. It is accurate enough to say that these are two “forms” of -al since the \begin{align*}<\mathrm{i}>\end{align*} and \begin{align*}<\mathrm{u}>\end{align*} were added to the basic <al> form. Words that contain -ial or -ual show palatalization if the sound at the end of the stem can be palatalized: actual, partial, sexual, gradual, racial, etc. The only words not not showing palatalization have stems that end in sounds that can't be palatalized: the bilabial [b] in adverbial, for instance, or the [r] in tutorial. In cases without palatalization the \begin{align*}<\mathrm{i}>\end{align*} and \begin{align*}<\mathrm{u}>\end{align*} are still pronounced.

Educate is a bit of a curiosity: The palatalization occurs at the front of the base, rather than at the end upon the addition of a suffix. Also educate is related to educe in which the palatalization does not occur. Dictionaries show educe with \begin{align*}[\bar{\mathrm{u}}]\end{align*} and \begin{align*}[\mathrm{y}\bar{\mathrm{u}}]\end{align*}. It is conceivable that in time the pronunciation with the [y] glide will begin to encourage a palatalized pronunciation of educe, with [j] rather than [d]. It is likely that if such a change were to develop, it would be resisted as “sloppy pronunciation.”

Item 4. Dependent has the variant dependant. The form with \begin{align*}<\mathrm{a}>\end{align*} came through French; that with <e> came directly from Latin. Notice that independent does not have a variant with \begin{align*}<\mathrm{a}>\end{align*}, though dependent and pendent do.

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